structure and function of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system pdf

Structure and function of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system pdf

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Peripheral Nervous System

Overview of the Autonomic Nervous System

The Autonomic Nervous System

Peripheral Nervous System

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The peripheral nervous system PNS is the connection between the central nervous system and the rest of the body. The CNS is like the power plant of the nervous system. It creates the signals that control the functions of the body. The PNS is like the wires that go to individual houses. The PNS can be broken down into the autonomic nervous system , which controls bodily functions without conscious control, and the sensory-somatic nervous system , which transmits sensory information from the skin, muscles, and sensory organs to the CNS and sends motor commands from the CNS to the muscles.

It originates in the brain stem and sacral spinal cord and commonly — but not always — yields peripheral adjustments that are complementary to those produced by its counterpart, the sympathetic nervous system SNS. The parasympathetic nervous system is one of two main branches or subsystems of the autonomic nervous system, the physical system responsible for nonconsciously maintaining bodily homeostasis and coordinating bodily responses. Working with the second main branch, the sympathetic nervous system, the parasympathetic nervous system regulates a wide range of functions such as blood circulation, body temperature, respiration, and digestion. Examples of low activity and restorative adjustments are constriction of blood vessels in the lungs, increased gastric secretion, and decreased heart rate and contraction force. Although parasympathetic adjustments tend to complement sympathetic adjustments, they do not always.

Overview of the Autonomic Nervous System

The ANS is further divided into the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system. Both of these systems can stimulate and inhibit effectors. However, the two systems work in opposition—where one system stimulates an organ, the other inhibits. Working in this fashion, each system prepares the body for a different kind of situation, as follows:. In these kinds of situations, the sympathetic nervous system stimulates cardiac muscles to increase the heart rate, causes dilation of the bronchioles of the lungs increasing oxygen intake , and causes dilation of blood vessels that supply the heart and skeletal muscles increasing blood supply. The adrenal medulla is stimulated to release epinephrine adrenalin and norepinephrine noradrenalin , which in turn increases the metabolic rate of cells and stimulates the liver to release glucose into the blood.

The autonomic nervous system ANS regulates the functions of our internal organs the viscera such as the heart, stomach and intestines. The ANS is part of the peripheral nervous system and it also controls some of the muscles within the body. We are often unaware of the ANS because it functions involuntary and reflexively. For example, we do not notice when blood vessels change size or when our heart beats faster. However, some people can be trained to control some functions of the ANS such as heart rate or blood pressure. The ANS is most important in two situations:. It is a nice, sunny day

The Autonomic Nervous System

Sympathetic nervous system , division of the nervous system that functions to produce localized adjustments such as sweating as a response to an increase in temperature and reflex adjustments of the cardiovascular system. Under conditions of stress , the entire sympathetic nervous system is activated, producing an immediate widespread response called the fight-or-flight response. This response is characterized by the release of large quantities of epinephrine from the adrenal gland , an increase in heart rate, an increase in cardiac output , skeletal muscle vasodilation, cutaneous and gastrointestinal vasoconstriction, pupillary dilation, bronchial dilation, and piloerection. The overall effect is to prepare the individual for imminent danger. The actions of the sympathetic nervous system occur in concert with other neural or hormonal responses to stress, including increases in corticotropin and cortisol secretion.

The autonomic nervous system regulates certain body processes, such as blood pressure and the rate of breathing. Disorders of the autonomic nervous system can affect any body part or process. Autonomic disorders may be reversible or progressive. The autonomic nervous system is the part of the nervous system that supplies the internal organs, including the blood vessels, stomach, intestine, liver, kidneys, bladder, genitals, lungs, pupils, heart, and sweat, salivary, and digestive glands.

Autonomic Nervous System

Никто этого не знает? - Ответа он не дождался. Техники и все прочие беспомощно смотрели на ВР. Джабба повернулся к монитору и вскинул руки.  - Почему среди нас нет ни одного ядерного физика. Сьюзан, глядя на мультимедийный клип, понимала, что все кончено. Она следила за смертью Танкадо - в который уже. Он хотел говорить, но слова застревали у него в горле.

 Танкадо мог посылать фиктивные сообщения на неиспользованный адрес в надежде, что мы его обнаружим и решим, что он обеспечил себе защиту. В таком случае ему не нужно будет передавать пароль кому-то. Возможно, он работал в одиночку. Стратмор хмыкнул. Мысль Сьюзан показалась ему достойной внимания. - Неплохо, но есть одно .

Где-то в уголке сознания Беккера звонили колокола. Я не умер. Он с трудом открыл глаза и увидел первые солнечные лучи. Беккер прекрасно помнил все, что произошло, и опустил глаза, думая увидеть перед собой своего убийцу. Но того человека в очках нигде не. Были другие люди.

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Сьюзан встала и быстро подошла к громадному книжному шкафу с техническими руководствами, взяла с полки справочник с прошитым проволочной спиралью корешком и принялась его листать. Она нашла то, что искала, вернулась со справочником к своему терминалу, ввела несколько команд и подождала, пока компьютер проверит список команд, отданных за последние три часа.

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