basics of anatomy and physiology pdf

Basics of anatomy and physiology pdf

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Overview of Anatomy and Physiology

Anatomy and Physiology

Anatomy Textbook For Medical Students Pdf

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It is an old science, having its beginnings in prehistoric times. Anatomy and physiology , which study the structure and function of organisms and their parts respectively, make a natural pair of related disciplines , and are often studied together. Human anatomy is one of the essential basic sciences that are applied in medicine.

The discipline of anatomy is divided into macroscopic and microscopic. Macroscopic anatomy, or gross anatomy , is the examination of an animal's body parts using unaided eyesight. Gross anatomy also includes the branch of superficial anatomy. Microscopic anatomy involves the use of optical instruments in the study of the tissues of various structures, known as histology , and also in the study of cells.

The history of anatomy is characterized by a progressive understanding of the functions of the organs and structures of the human body. Methods have also improved dramatically, advancing from the examination of animals by dissection of carcasses and cadavers corpses to 20th century medical imaging techniques including X-ray , ultrasound , and magnetic resonance imaging.

It includes the appearance and position of the various parts, the materials from which they are composed, their locations and their relationships with other parts. Anatomy is quite distinct from physiology and biochemistry , which deal respectively with the functions of those parts and the chemical processes involved. For example, an anatomist is concerned with the shape, size, position, structure, blood supply and innervation of an organ such as the liver; while a physiologist is interested in the production of bile , the role of the liver in nutrition and the regulation of bodily functions.

The discipline of anatomy can be subdivided into a number of branches including gross or macroscopic anatomy and microscopic anatomy. Microscopic anatomy is the study of structures on a microscopic scale, along with histology the study of tissues , and embryology the study of an organism in its immature condition. Anatomy can be studied using both invasive and non-invasive methods with the goal of obtaining information about the structure and organization of organs and systems.

Angiography using X-rays or magnetic resonance angiography are methods to visualize blood vessels. The term "anatomy" is commonly taken to refer to human anatomy. However, substantially the same structures and tissues are found throughout the rest of the animal kingdom and the term also includes the anatomy of other animals. The term zootomy is also sometimes used to specifically refer to non-human animals.

The structure and tissues of plants are of a dissimilar nature and they are studied in plant anatomy. The kingdom Animalia contains multicellular organisms that are heterotrophic and motile although some have secondarily adopted a sessile lifestyle. Most animals have bodies differentiated into separate tissues and these animals are also known as eumetazoans.

They have an internal digestive chamber, with one or two openings; the gametes are produced in multicellular sex organs, and the zygotes include a blastula stage in their embryonic development. Metazoans do not include the sponges , which have undifferentiated cells. Unlike plant cells , animal cells have neither a cell wall nor chloroplasts.

Vacuoles, when present, are more in number and much smaller than those in the plant cell. The body tissues are composed of numerous types of cell, including those found in muscles , nerves and skin.

Each typically has a cell membrane formed of phospholipids , cytoplasm and a nucleus. All of the different cells of an animal are derived from the embryonic germ layers. Those simpler invertebrates which are formed from two germ layers of ectoderm and endoderm are called diploblastic and the more developed animals whose structures and organs are formed from three germ layers are called triploblastic.

Animal tissues can be grouped into four basic types: connective , epithelial , muscle and nervous tissue. Connective tissues are fibrous and made up of cells scattered among inorganic material called the extracellular matrix. Connective tissue gives shape to organs and holds them in place. The main types are loose connective tissue, adipose tissue , fibrous connective tissue, cartilage and bone. The extracellular matrix contains proteins , the chief and most abundant of which is collagen. Collagen plays a major part in organizing and maintaining tissues.

The matrix can be modified to form a skeleton to support or protect the body. An exoskeleton is a thickened, rigid cuticle which is stiffened by mineralization , as in crustaceans or by the cross-linking of its proteins as in insects. An endoskeleton is internal and present in all developed animals, as well as in many of those less developed. Epithelial tissue is composed of closely packed cells, bound to each other by cell adhesion molecules , with little intercellular space.

Epithelial cells can be squamous flat , cuboidal or columnar and rest on a basal lamina , the upper layer of the basement membrane , [14] the lower layer is the reticular lamina lying next to the connective tissue in the extracellular matrix secreted by the epithelial cells. In the respiratory tract there is a type of ciliated epithelial lining; in the small intestine there are microvilli on the epithelial lining and in the large intestine there are intestinal villi.

Skin consists of an outer layer of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium that covers the exterior of the vertebrate body. In simple animals this may just be a coat of glycoproteins. Muscle cells myocytes form the active contractile tissue of the body. Muscle tissue functions to produce force and cause motion, either locomotion or movement within internal organs.

Muscle is formed of contractile filaments and is separated into three main types; smooth muscle , skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle. Smooth muscle has no striations when examined microscopically. It contracts slowly but maintains contractibility over a wide range of stretch lengths. It is found in such organs as sea anemone tentacles and the body wall of sea cucumbers.

Skeletal muscle contracts rapidly but has a limited range of extension. It is found in the movement of appendages and jaws. Obliquely striated muscle is intermediate between the other two. The filaments are staggered and this is the type of muscle found in earthworms that can extend slowly or make rapid contractions. Smooth muscle is found in the walls of the uterus , bladder , intestines , stomach , oesophagus , respiratory airways , and blood vessels. Cardiac muscle is found only in the heart , allowing it to contract and pump blood round the body.

Nervous tissue is composed of many nerve cells known as neurons which transmit information. In some slow-moving radially symmetrical marine animals such as ctenophores and cnidarians including sea anemones and jellyfish , the nerves form a nerve net , but in most animals they are organized longitudinally into bundles. In simple animals, receptor neurons in the body wall cause a local reaction to a stimulus. In more complex animals, specialized receptor cells such as chemoreceptors and photoreceptors are found in groups and send messages along neural networks to other parts of the organism.

Neurons can be connected together in ganglia. The latter consists of sensory nerves that transmit information from sense organs and motor nerves that influence target organs. All vertebrates have a similar basic body plan and at some point in their lives, mostly in the embryonic stage, share the major chordate characteristics; a stiffening rod, the notochord ; a dorsal hollow tube of nervous material, the neural tube ; pharyngeal arches ; and a tail posterior to the anus.

The spinal cord is protected by the vertebral column and is above the notochord and the gastrointestinal tract is below it. At the posterior end is a tail which continues the spinal cord and vertebrae but not the gut. The mouth is found at the anterior end of the animal, and the anus at the base of the tail.

In most vertebrates the notochord becomes the nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral discs. However, a few vertebrates, such as the sturgeon and the coelacanth retain the notochord into adulthood. The limbs of vertebrates are considered to be homologous because the same underlying skeletal structure was inherited from their last common ancestor. This is one of the arguments put forward by Charles Darwin to support his theory of evolution.

The body of a fish is divided into a head, trunk and tail, although the divisions between the three are not always externally visible. The skeleton, which forms the support structure inside the fish, is either made of cartilage, in cartilaginous fish , or bone in bony fish. The main skeletal element is the vertebral column, composed of articulating vertebrae which are lightweight yet strong. The ribs attach to the spine and there are no limbs or limb girdles.

The main external features of the fish, the fins , are composed of either bony or soft spines called rays, which with the exception of the caudal fins , have no direct connection with the spine. They are supported by the muscles which compose the main part of the trunk. There is an inner ear but no external or middle ear. Low frequency vibrations are detected by the lateral line system of sense organs that run along the length of the sides of fish, and these respond to nearby movements and to changes in water pressure.

Sharks and rays are basal fish with numerous primitive anatomical features similar to those of ancient fish, including skeletons composed of cartilage. Their bodies tend to be dorso-ventrally flattened, they usually have five pairs of gill slits and a large mouth set on the underside of the head. The dermis is covered with separate dermal placoid scales. They have a cloaca into which the urinary and genital passages open, but not a swim bladder.

Cartilaginous fish produce a small number of large, yolky eggs. Some species are ovoviviparous and the young develop internally but others are oviparous and the larvae develop externally in egg cases. The bony fish lineage shows more derived anatomical traits, often with major evolutionary changes from the features of ancient fish.

They have a bony skeleton, are generally laterally flattened, have five pairs of gills protected by an operculum , and a mouth at or near the tip of the snout. The dermis is covered with overlapping scales. Bony fish have a swim bladder which helps them maintain a constant depth in the water column, but not a cloaca. They mostly spawn a large number of small eggs with little yolk which they broadcast into the water column.

Amphibians are a class of animals comprising frogs , salamanders and caecilians. They are tetrapods , but the caecilians and a few species of salamander have either no limbs or their limbs are much reduced in size.

Their main bones are hollow and lightweight and are fully ossified and the vertebrae interlock with each other and have articular processes. Their ribs are usually short and may be fused to the vertebrae. Their skulls are mostly broad and short, and are often incompletely ossified. Their skin contains little keratin and lacks scales, but contains many mucous glands and in some species, poison glands. The hearts of amphibians have three chambers, two atria and one ventricle.

They have a urinary bladder and nitrogenous waste products are excreted primarily as urea. Amphibians breathe by means of buccal pumping , a pump action in which air is first drawn into the buccopharyngeal region through the nostrils.

These are then closed and the air is forced into the lungs by contraction of the throat.

Overview of Anatomy and Physiology

Attribution CC BY. The units listed in this text were very informative. They covered all content at for the level of text. Felt the descriptions and content was more than enough for the level of education for a course with this text. The background information for a

Category: Medical. Topic: Basic Anatomy and Physiology. Next Unit: The Circulatory System. Anatomy and physiology is the study of the body's systems and structures and how they interact. Anatomy focuses on the physical arrangement of parts in the body while physiology is the study of the inner functioning of cells, tissues, and organs. This section will review the major systems of the body; the musculoskeletal system, the circulatory system, the nervous system, the digestive system, the respiratory system, and the integumentary system. Further detail of these systems will be provided in later units.

Anatomy describes the structure and location of the different components of an organism to provide a framework for understanding. Human anatomy studies the way that every part of a human, from molecules to bones, interacts to form a functional whole. There are two major types of anatomy. Gross macroscopic anatomy is the study of anatomical structures that can be seen by the naked eye, such as the external and internal bodily organs. Microscopic anatomy is the study of tiny anatomical structures such as tissues and cells. Regional anatomy is widely used in modern teaching because it is easier to apply to a clinical setting than systemic anatomy.

Anatomy and physiology are closely integrated both theoretically and practically Anatomical information provides clues about probable functions and physiological.

Anatomy and Physiology

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Anatomy Textbook For Medical Students Pdf

In order to ensure that user-safety is not compromised and you enjoy faster downloads, we have used trusted 3rd-party repository links that are not hosted on our website. We hope that you people find our blog beneficial! It is written in clear, concise, and easily understandable scientific language and presupposes no previous biology exposure. This text will guide you along a journey of understanding how the human body operates on a daily basis from birth to death. The writing style and presentation will assist introductory learners with limited backgrounds in the sciences to comprehend the basic concepts of human anatomy and physiology, and the fascinating working mechanisms of our bodies. Several features are incorporated into each chapter to help you master the content. This is a genuine PDF ebook copy of this book hosted to 3rd-party online repositories so that you can enjoy a blazing-fast and safe downloading experience.

Instructors, contact your Pearson representative for more information. Instructors ensure students arrive ready to learn by assigning educationally effective content before class, and encourage critical thinking and retention with in-class resources such as Learning Catalytics TM. This all-in-one-package includes fully solved problems, examples, and practice exercises to sharpen your problem-solving skills.

 В следующем семестре я возвращаюсь в аудиторию. Сьюзан с облегчением вздохнула: - Туда, где твое подлинное призвание.

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Телефон звонил не переставая. Джабба решил не обращать на него внимания. - Мидж, - беззвучно выдавил он, - черт тебя дери. В шифровалке все в порядке! - Телефон не унимался. Джабба принялся устанавливать на место новый чип. Через минуту его усилия увенчались успехом, а телефон все звонил и звонил.

 Хорошо, хорошо.  - Мидж вздохнула.  - Я ошиблась.  - Она сдвинула брови, задумавшись, почему ТРАНСТЕКСТ за весь день не взломал ни единого шифра.  - Позволь мне кое-что проверить, - сказала она, перелистывая отчет. Найдя то, что искала, Мидж пробежала глазами цифры и минуту спустя кивнула: - Ты прав, Чед. ТРАНСТЕКСТ работал на полную мощность.

Единственным звуком, достигавшим его ушей, был едва уловимый гул, шедший снизу. Сьюзан хотелось потянуть шефа назад, в безопасность его кабинета. В кромешной тьме вокруг ей виделись чьи-то лица. На полпути к ТРАНСТЕКСТУ тишина шифровалки нарушилась. Где-то в темноте, казалось, прямо над ними, послышались пронзительные гудки. Стратмор повернулся, и Сьюзан сразу же его потеряла.

Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology

Но что будет, если какое-нибудь будущее правительство станет вести себя .


  • Mathias K. 04.06.2021 at 03:02

    It is an old science, having its beginnings in prehistoric times.

  • Gildo V. 09.06.2021 at 11:14

    Some specializations within each of these sciences follow:.


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