prevention and control of waterborne diseases pdf

Prevention and control of waterborne diseases pdf

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Published: 31.05.2021

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Acute Respiratory Conditions

Waterborne diseases

Each year, waterborne diseases afflict hundreds of millions of people, primarily those living without safe, accessible water in developing countries. Of the seven most common waterborne diseases in the world, diarrhea is the central symptom. The latest research shows that diarrhea is the second leading cause of death for children under the age of five, causing more childhood deaths than malaria, AIDS, and measles combined.

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Waterborne illness is caused by recreational or drinking water contaminated by disease-causing microbes or pathogens. Of note, many waterborne pathogens can also be acquired by consuming contaminated food or beverages, from contact with animals or their environment, or through person-to-person spread. Waterborne illnesses can cause a variety of symptoms. While diarrhea and vomiting are the most commonly reported symptoms of waterborne illness, other symptoms can include skin, ear, respiratory, or eye problems. Do you suspect you have a waterborne illness?

A mathematical model is formulated that captures the essential dynamics of waterborne disease transmission under the assumption of a homogeneously mixed population. The important mathematical features of the model are determined and analysed. The model is extended by introducing control intervention strategies such as vaccination, treatment, and water purification. Mathematical analyses of the control model are used to determine the possible benefits of these control intervention strategies. Optimal control theory is utilized to determine how to reduce the spread of a disease with minimum cost.

Acute Respiratory Conditions

Waterborne diseases are conditions caused by pathogenic micro-organisms that are transmitted in water. These diseases can be spread while bathing, washing, drinking water, or by eating food exposed to contaminated water. While diarrhea and vomiting are the most commonly reported symptoms of waterborne illness, other symptoms can include skin, ear, respiratory, or eye problems. Microorganisms causing diseases that characteristically are waterborne prominently include protozoa and bacteria , many of which are intestinal parasites , or invade the tissues or circulatory system through walls of the digestive tract. Various other waterborne diseases are caused by viruses. In spite of philosophical difficulties associated with defining viruses as " organisms ", it is practical and convenient to regard them as microorganisms in this connection. Yet other important classes of water-borne diseases are caused by metazoan parasites.

Patient information : See related handout on waterborne illnesses , written by the authors of this article. Illness after recreational water activities can be caused by a variety of agents, including bacteria, viruses, parasites, algae, and even chlorine gas. These illnesses are more common in summer. Waterborne illnesses are underreported because most recreational activity occurs in unsupervised venues or on private property, and participants tend to disperse before illness occurs. Symptoms of waterborne illness are primarily gastrointestinal, but upper respiratory and skin manifestations also occur. Gastrointestinal symptoms are usually self-limited, and supportive treatment may be all that is necessary.

Read about protecting people from brain-eating ameba page 2 and innovating solutions for sanitation in Kenya page 4 pdf icon [PDF - 4 pages] in National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases: Accomplishments With its many uses for drinking, recreation, sanitation, hygiene, and industry, water is our most precious global resource. Access to clean and safe water, adequate sanitation, and improved hygiene are critical to sustaining human health and life. Although water is essential for life, it also causes injuries and can spread illness when it is contaminated by disease-causing organisms. A world where everyone has access to safe water, adequate sanitation, and basic hygiene practices. To maximize the health, productivity, and well-being of people in the United States and around the globe through improved and sustained access to safe water for drinking, recreation, and other uses, adequate sanitation, and basic hygiene practices.

Waterborne diseases

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1 comments

  • John B. 06.06.2021 at 15:02

    Impact of climate change on waterborne diseases.

    Reply

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