difference between motor and pump pdf creator

Difference between motor and pump pdf creator

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Electric Micro-Turbo-Compressor High-speed compression for clean air.

A brushless DC electric motor BLDC motor or BL motor , also known as electronically commutated motor ECM or EC motor and synchronous DC motors , are synchronous motors powered by direct current DC electricity via an inverter or switching power supply which produces electricity in the form of alternating current AC to drive each phase of the motor via a closed loop controller. The controller provides pulses of current to the motor windings that control the speed and torque of the motor. This control system replaces the commutator brushes used in many conventional electric motors. The construction of a brushless motor system is typically similar to a permanent magnet synchronous motor PMSM , but can also be a switched reluctance motor , or an induction asynchronous motor. They may also use neodymium magnets and be outrunners the stator is surrounded by the rotor , inrunners the rotor is surrounded by the stator , or axial the rotor and stator are flat and parallel.

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Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer.

In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. The poseidon syringe pump and microscope system is an open source alternative to commercial systems.

We describe the poseidon system and use it to illustrate design principles that can facilitate the adoption and development of open source bioinstruments. The principles are functionality, robustness, safety, simplicity, modularity, benchmarking, and documentation. Open source hardware projects 1 have become increasingly popular in recent years due in part to the rapid evolution of desktop 3D printers and an ecosystem of open source electronic boards like the Arduino and Raspberry Pi systems 2 , 3.

These developments have spurred growing interest in laboratory instrument open source projects 4 , 5 , 6 including syringe pumps 7 , 8 , microscopes 9 , fluorescence imaging devices 10 , micro-dispensers 11 and single-cell transcriptomics technologies While cost savings can be an important reason for development of open source hardware 13 , the ability to customize designs for specific applications gives open source projects a unique advantage over commercial solutions.

In addition, expanding libraries of designs, software, and commonly used off-the-shelf parts can be shared and adapted across projects, meaning developers are never starting from scratch, even when designing a new instrument. As open source designs, electronics boards, software, and parts for 3D printers were continually published and improved, cheap and interchangeable open source hardware and software intended for 3D printing began to be repurposed for new bioinstruments such as liquid handlers 14 , vial handlers and food dispensers 15 , autosamplers 16 , 17 , and bioprinters 18 , Our laboratory has a general interest in developing new methods for high-throughput single-cell applications such as Drop-seq 20 and inDrops 21 which rely on precise flow rate control to operate microfluidic devices.

The unpredictable landscape of single-cell genomics technology puts a high priority on flexible hardware and software that can be adapted and re-purposed as experiments evolve. The inflexible software interface and functionality offered by commercial systems, and the array of do-it-yourself electronics and instrumentation projects powered by open source hardware, inspired us to develop our own open source multi-syringe pump array and microscope system for low cost microfluidics experiments.

The resulting system, which we call poseidon, is based on published open source syringe pumps 7 and microscope microfluidics stations 12 but introduces a number of innovations and adapts common 3D printer hardware and software to control the system. The poseidon syringe pump array and microscope system is an open source alternative to commercial systems Fig. The pumps and microscope can be used together for microfluidics experiments, or the pumps can be connected to a computer and used independently.

For scientists with tight budgets, the microscope system, which is stand-alone, is an effective solution for basic light microscopy. Model of the poseidon system. The poseidon system uses a Raspberry Pi and touchscreen for the microscope and an Arduino board with a CNC shield to operate up to four pumps simultaneously.

Each pump has a stepper motor that drives a lead screw, which in turn moves a sled mounted on linear bearings that pushes infuses or pulls aspirates the syringe plunger.

The system was developed using readily available tools: Autodesk Fusion for CAD, Python 3 and PyQT for software, 3D printers for fabricating custom hardware pieces, and off the shelf electronics and hardware parts Fig.

Using the poseidon system. Configuration of the poseidon system for running an emulsion generation microfluidics experiment where only two pumps are used. Overview of the tools used for developing the poseidon system.

The Arduino controls the stepper motors on each pump using the CNC shield and stepper motor drivers. For reproducibility and ease of adoption we included direct links to the specific parts used for poseidon, in the GitHub repository. The following components are available:.

As we invested more time into poseidon, we realized that the impact of many open source bioinstruments is limited by unintentionally restrictive design decisions and inadequate documentation that discourages adoption by others.

This is perhaps unsurprising as most projects are conceived and realized by non-expert developers who are themselves end users. It is with this community in mind that we present a set of guiding design principles specifically tailored to open source bioinstruments. The principles are a synthesis of our experiences designing the poseidon system from the ground up with ease of adoption as our goal. It is our intention that future developers can apply these principles from inception through testing to produce more robust, flexible systems that are more likely to be adopted, modified, and improved by the broader community.

Here we detail these design principles using the poseidon system as an illustrated example. We strove to produce a bioinstrument that could be readily implemented and modified by others: users and designers who could improve and expand on the system. We considered that bioinstrument users generally fall into two categories: i those who want to adopt a design and use it in a straightforward manner, and ii those who want to tweak, improve, and adapt designs to their needs, utilizing the instrument for new use cases.

While cost is one motivation for developing and using open source instruments, low cost alone cannot drive the adoption of a project for these two groups. A successful open source instrument appeals to the needs of basic and advanced users by adhering to a set of clear design principles: functionality, robustness, safety, simplicity, modularity, benchmarking, and documentation.

Adhering to these principles from the beginning of the design-build-test cycle will result in improved bioinstruments ready for further development and use by others. In engineering, a functional requirement defines a specific metric that a hardware or software system must achieve.

The poseidon system needed to achieve the following functional requirements for use in microfluidic applications:. The microscope needed to have sufficient magnification to examine the emulsions and view the microfluidic device during operation. The software interface needed to be simple and allow users to easily change flow rates, select syringe type or diameter, and perform gradient pumping.

These were the minimum requirements that were specified before we began developing poseidon. A similar list of specific requirements is a necessary starting point for any bioinstrumentation project. After designing hardware that should be able to meet these objectives, we ensured the pumps operated reliably with flow rates ranging from a few hundred microliters per hour up to several hundred milliliters per minute and we selected an inexpensive USB microscope that reliably imaged our microfluidic device.

The 0. Representative images are in S2. Robustness encompasses not only mitigating the possibility of failure during operation but also ensuring a construction process that tolerates variability in the components. This is particularly important in biology applications where instruments must frequently work in varying physical conditions and with variable input.

Ensuring robustness took considerable time, demanding attention to small details and repeated testing. For example, much open source hardware relies on 3D printed components that can introduce variability when printed on different printers.

Mechanical tolerance was built into the 3D printed parts over the course of many design-build-test cycles, for example by modifying the print settings to allow for a press fit of the syringe into the pump.

During testing, we discovered an unforeseen hardware issue: when there was too much sliding resistance on the carriage, the linear rods displaced and the printed plastic body bent. To stop the bending, we designed a reinforced body and secured the linear rods with set screws. This level of refinement is to be expected for any bioinstrument, and potential developers should be prepared for several design cycles to create an adoptable device. On the software side, robustness demands testing to minimize user operation error and to ensure correct functionality.

The software must be installed and tested on multiple operating systems to verify operation is as expected. In parallel, internet-capable devices such as the Raspberry Pi should be appropriately set up to to avoid internet-based attacks.

Once the poseidon pumps were being used for experiments in our lab and others, usability issues became apparent.

For example, one version of the software configured the stepper motors to use a different microstepping than the hardware had configured, an error which the users encountered during their experiments by observing incorrect flow rates.

These improvements are relatively minor on their own, but we believe the sum total of such small modifications has an outsized impact on potential adopters testing out an unfamiliar system for the first time.

Safety critically important for robust device operation and must be carefully considered in a laboratory context. When designing an open source bioinstrument one should always be aware of the health, fire, chemical, and biological hazards present in the laboratory, and other hazards that could arise during instrument construction, normal operation, and possible malfunction. The US Occupational Safety and Health Administration OSHA provides guidelines on hazards present in the laboratory environment 22 and those arising from mechanical equipment operation Additionally, the International Organization for Standardization ISO has developed comprehensive standards on machinery safety Material Safety and Data Sheets should be used in tandem with these guidelines to design instruments that are robust to hazardous conditions, keeping the user safe.

Certain hazards can arise during the operation of the poseidon syringe pump system that are similar to those encountered when operating other equivalent devices. These include electrical shocks, clogged lines creating pressurized liquids, and material compatibility. The poseidon syringe pump system uses 3D printed PLA plastic and standard off the shelf components which do not pose a health hazard if handled correctly. Improper handling of plastics however can pose major safety concerns.

Designers should consider how their instrument operates when used under elevated temperatures exceeding the melting point of the plastic or under high stress exceeding the yield strength of the plastic. Initial tests of the poseidon syringe pump showed excessive bending of the syringe pump body which we mitigated by reinforcing the body with set screws and a thicker base.

We also considered forces induced on the syringe pump due to clogging. The chemical properties of the materials used in designing instrument parts should be considered 27 if one is designing an instrument that could come in contact with organic solvents.

We note that the PLA plastic used is compatible with most solvents One benefit of open source 3D printable designs is that there are a number of 3D printing materials that are chemically compatible with many types of standard wet lab environmental conditions and hazards 28 , Finally, in the development of any open source bioinstrument, after identifying safety requirements it is important that hazards and safe operating procedures be clearly communicated.

We describe the safety aspects of the poseidon system on the project Github page. Simplicity and ease-of-use are essential for the adoption of bioinstruments. Sourcing components for a design should be as easy as possible, prioritizing off-the-shelf components during development and incorporating harder to find parts only if necessary for the application at hand.

An accurate and up-to-date bill of materials BOM , with ideally more than one vendor for each part, simplifies purchasing and leads to easier adoption. For the poseidon system, we ensured that users would be able to purchase all the components from Amazon.

During assembly, it is important to recognize that using specialized equipment - even soldering a circuit board - may be a barrier to adoption. While such specialized assembly processes are sometimes unavoidable, simplicity is paramount. An excellent way to assess the difficulty of assembly is to have people unfamiliar with the project perform the assembly using only the documentation available.

Simplicity considerations also apply to software. For example, minimizing dependency on external software libraries simplifies installation and avoids versioning issues.

We compiled the Python scripts into single-click executable files for Mac, Windows, and Linux. After testing we realized that a flexible user interface design was critical to develop software that minimized user error.

The original rigid custom GUI code did not allow us to easily resize buttons, change button layout, or add new functionalities. Using Qt Designer, a drag and drop GUI creator, we could overcome these challenges and create a basic, functional user interface that is touch-screen and click-button compatible.

Additionally, the GUI can easily be adapted and modified for the needs of future adopters. The custom poseidon Arduino firmware needs be loaded onto the Arduino Uno board following simple instructions. If users wishes to use a Raspberry Pi to operate poseidon, installation requires flashing an SD card with the official version of the Raspbian OS image. Because some users will want to adapt a design to new use cases, it is important to consider how easily a design can be taken apart, tweaked, and re-purposed.

A modular design with independent components that can be interfaced with each other is easier to re-purpose and improve on than a tightly integrated device. When a design is not modular, developing new features may require a complete redesign.

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An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. Most electric motors operate through the interaction between the motor's magnetic field and electric current in a wire winding to generate force in the form of torque applied on the motor's shaft. Electric motors can be powered by direct current DC sources, such as from batteries, or rectifiers , or by alternating current AC sources, such as a power grid, inverters or electrical generators. An electric generator is mechanically identical to an electric motor, but operates with a reversed flow of power, converting mechanical energy into electrical energy. Electric motors may be classified by considerations such as power source type, internal construction, application and type of motion output.

Coffs Harbour City Council. Ordinary Council Meeting. The above meeting will be held in the Council Administration Building. Thursday, 26 April The meeting commences at 5.

Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. The poseidon syringe pump and microscope system is an open source alternative to commercial systems. We describe the poseidon system and use it to illustrate design principles that can facilitate the adoption and development of open source bioinstruments. The principles are functionality, robustness, safety, simplicity, modularity, benchmarking, and documentation.


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Electric motor

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Late Reports. Council Briefing. Administration and Civic Centre. Len Kosova.

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This timeline was developed through research, credible sources and the knowledge of friends in the industry, The history of pumps is long and illustrious. This account represents highlights of some of the major historical and technological developments. We welcome your contributions. It uses a long suspended rod with a bucket at one end and a weight at the other. This is the principal design that is now known as the reciprocating pump. This gear pump made it possible to dispense with the reciprocating slide valves used by Ramelli. Pappenheim drove his machine by an overshot water wheel set in motion by a stream and was used to feed water fountains.

Офицер пропустил удостоверение через подключенный к компьютеру сканер, потом наконец взглянул на. - Спасибо, мисс Флетчер.  - Он подал едва заметный знак, и ворота распахнулись.

Electric motor

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