extinctions in ancient and modern seas pdf

Extinctions in ancient and modern seas pdf

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Extinctions in ancient and modern seas

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Megan Lamkin, Arnold I. The application of the comparative method has led to the widely iterated estimate that contemporary global extinction rates are — times higher than the background rate. Recent analyses indicate that the average background rate is closer to 0.

Extinctions in ancient and modern seas

Paleozoic Era , also spelled Palaeozoic , major interval of geologic time that began million years ago with the Cambrian explosion , an extraordinary diversification of marine animals, and ended about million years ago with the end- Permian extinction, the greatest extinction event in Earth history. The major divisions of the Paleozoic Era, from oldest to youngest, are the Cambrian million to The Paleozoic takes its name from the Greek word for ancient life.

The story of the earliest Paleozoic animals is one of life in the sea. Presumably simple fungi and related forms existed in freshwater environments , but the fossil record provides no evidence of these modes of life.

The terrestrial environment of the early Paleozoic was barren of the simplest of life-forms. The Cambrian explosion was a sharp and sudden increase in the rate of evolution.

The biota rapidly diversified throughout the Cambrian and Ordovician periods as life-forms adapted to virtually all marine environments. In numbers of described marine species, fossils of trilobites dominate Cambrian rocks, whereas brachiopods lamp shells predominate in strata from the Ordovician through the Permian Period. Several different kinds of organisms adapted independently to life on land, primarily during the middle Paleozoic. Leafless vascular plants psilophytes and invertebrate animals centipede-like arthropods were both established on land at least by Silurian time.

Vertebrate animals made the transition to land via the evolution of amphibians from air-breathing crossopterygian fish during Devonian times. Further conquest of the land became possible during the Carboniferous Period , when plants and animals evolved solutions to overcome their dependence on moist environments for reproduction: waterborne spores were replaced by seeds in plants of seed-fern origin, and shell-less eggs were replaced by amniote eggs with protective shells in animals of reptilian origin.

Flight was first achieved also during the Carboniferous Period as insects evolved wings. The Permian extinction , at the end of the Paleozoic Era, eliminated such major invertebrate groups as the blastoids an extinct group of echinoderms related to the modern starfish and sea lilies , fusulinids , and trilobites.

Other major groups, which included the ammonoids , brachiopods , bryozoans moss animals , corals, and crinoids cuplike echinoderms with five or more feathery arms , were severely decimated but managed to survive.

It has been estimated that as many as 95 percent of the marine invertebrate species perished during the late Permian Period. Extinction rates were much lower among vertebrates, both aquatic and terrestrial, and among plants. Causes of this extinction event remain unclear, but they may be related to the changing climate and exceptionally low sea levels of the time. Although of lesser magnitude, other important Paleozoic mass extinctions occurred at the end of the Ordovician Period and during the late Devonian Period.

On a global scale, the Paleozoic was a time of continental assembly. The majority of Cambrian landmasses were gathered together to form Gondwana , a supercontinent made up of the present-day continents of Africa , South America , Australia , and Antarctica and the Indian subcontinent. It extended from the northern tropics to the southern polar regions. With the exception of three major cratons landmasses forming the stable interiors of continents not part of the initial configuration of Gondwana, the remainder of Earth was covered by the global Panthalassic Ocean.

Laurentia was separated from Gondwana by the Iapetus Ocean. The smaller Baltica craton was positioned within the Iapetus Ocean, lying to the south of Laurentia and just off the northern margin of Gondwana. Baltica was made up of much of Scandinavia and western Europe. To the east of Laurentia, the Siberian craton was positioned just south of the paleoequator between Laurentia and the western coast of Gondwana.

While a portion of Gondwana was positioned at or near the South Pole , there is no evidence of glaciation during Cambrian time. While little is known about the finer details of the Cambrian climate, geologic evidence shows that the margins of all continents were flooded by shallow seas.

It is in the rock formed within these shallow seas that the greatest explosion of life ever recorded occurred. By Ordovician time, part of Gondwana had begun to move over the South Pole. The distribution of extensive glacial deposits, which formed later in the Paleozoic, has been used to track the movement of parts of Gondwana over and around the South Pole.

Siberia, Baltica, and Laurentia also moved to new locations during the course of the Paleozoic. Siberia , essentially the large Asian portion of present-day Russia , was a separate continent during the early and middle Paleozoic, when it moved from equatorial to northern temperate latitudes. Baltica moved across the paleoequator from southern cool temperate latitudes into northern warm latitudes during the Paleozoic.

It collided with and joined Laurentia during the early Devonian Period. The beginnings of such mountainous regions as the Appalachians , Caledonides, and Urals resulted from the Paleozoic collision of the lithospheric plates. By the end of the Paleozoic, continued tectonic plate movements had forced these cratons together to form the supercontinent of Pangea. Large areas of all continents were episodically inundated by shallow seas, with the greatest inundations occurring during the Ordovician and early Carboniferous Mississippian periods.

Paleozoic rocks are widely distributed on all continents. Most are of sedimentary origin, and many show evidence of deposition in or near shallow oceans. Among the more useful guide fossils for correlation are trilobites distinctive three-lobed marine arthropods , for Cambrian through Ordovician strata; graptolites small colonial planktonic animals , for rocks dated from Ordovician through Silurian times; conodonts primitive chordates with tooth-shaped fossil remains , for Ordovician to Permian rocks; ammonoids widely distributed extinct mollusks resembling the modern pearly nautilus , for Devonian through Cretaceous strata; and fusulinids single-celled amoeba-like organisms with complex shells , for rocks dating from the Carboniferous through the Permian Period.

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Richard A. Coauthor of Fossil Invertebrates. The stratigraphic chart of geologic time. Read More on This Topic. Phanerozoic Australia is divided at the Tasman Line into two parts.

Those are a western terrane of exposed Precambrian blocks and fold belts An early Silurian coral-stromatoporoid community.

Pennsylvanian coal forest dioramaThe lone tree with horizontal grooves in the right foreground is a jointed sphenopsid Calamites ; the large trees with scar patterns are lycopsids. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Subscribe Now. Distribution of landmasses, mountainous regions, shallow seas, and deep ocean basins during the Late Cambrian.

Included in the paleogeographic reconstruction are cold and warm ocean currents. The present-day coastlines and tectonic boundaries of the configured continents are shown in the inset at the lower right.

Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. Those are a western terrane of exposed Precambrian blocks and fold belts overlain by thin Phanerozoic basins and an eastern terrane of exposed Phanerozoic fold belts and basins. The tectonic events in Asia of the Paleozoic Era about to million years ago may be summarized under three categories: events in the Altaids, events in the Tethysides, and events in the continental nuclei.

The identification of Asian Paleozoic tectonic events…. The Paleozoic Era consists of the Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, and Permian periods and includes two major mountain-building episodes.

The continent of Africa may be said to have taken shape during the Paleozoic. A glacial period during the…. History at your fingertips. Sign up here to see what happened On This Day , every day in your inbox!

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Marine life , or sea life or ocean life , is the plants , animals and other organisms that live in the salt water of the sea or ocean, or the brackish water of coastal estuaries. At a fundamental level, marine life affects the nature of the planet. Marine organisms, mostly microorganisms , produce oxygen and sequester carbon. Shorelines are in part shaped and protected by marine life, and some marine organisms even help create new land. The term marine comes from the Latin mare , meaning sea or ocean. Most life forms evolved initially in marine habitats.

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. As examples, Figure 3. The thousand-year Phanerozoic level of analysis effectively replicates the significant patterns of global change in the more finely analyzed Quaternary data. Further, interregional correlation of Quaternary global change data relies heavily on the isotopic record of glaciation and sea-level fluctuations, as regulated through Milankovitch climate cyclicity.


Extinctions in ancient and modern seas. The fossil record. Extinctions are a primary feature of the marine fossil record (Figure 1a). Although mass extinction.


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1 comments

  • Huette G. 04.06.2021 at 00:45

    Paleozoic Era , also spelled Palaeozoic , major interval of geologic time that began million years ago with the Cambrian explosion , an extraordinary diversification of marine animals, and ended about million years ago with the end- Permian extinction, the greatest extinction event in Earth history.

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