File Name: organizational development and change cummings .zip
Organizational development is an often-heard term and a key organizational function. In this complete guide, we will take a closer look at a concept that many have heard of but are unfamiliar with.
Organization: Definition, Structure, Evolution 2. Please click button to get organization What Is Organization Development? T hinkforamomentabouttheorganizationstowhichyoubelong.
Organizational development is an often-heard term and a key organizational function. In this complete guide, we will take a closer look at a concept that many have heard of but are unfamiliar with. We will dive into what organizational development is, its goals, examples of common organizational development interventions and techniques, and the OD process.
By the end of this guide, you will have a good understanding of what OD is, and the techniques that can be used to improve organizational effectiveness. Table of contents What is organizational development? Organizational development is a critical and science-based process that helps organizations build their capacity to change and achieve greater effectiveness by developing, improving, and reinforcing strategies, structures, and processes.
Organizational design has become more crucial over time. This VUCA world requires new agility from organizations, and organizational development is the means to that end. Globalization leads to a much greater interconnectedness and opens up organizations to world-wide opportunities and threats. Organizational development is a critical process that should be monitored with the right HR metrics.
On top of that, IT is redefining how traditional business models work, creating innovative companies with the ability to scale their services to a worldwide audience in the timespan of only a few years. Just a year after launching, Facebook hit one million registered users. A few years later, Snapchat hit 10 million active users in its first year. This exposes incumbents to disruption.
Finally, business systems become better at measuring relevant data, changing the way success is measured. On top of that, advanced people analytics can help to further drive organizational outcomes.
We already briefly touched on the goals of organizational development. The goals differ per organization. Competitiveness is the idea that every organization has unique resources and competencies that help the firms to win in the marketplace. It can also be how reactive the organization is to changing market demands.
This means that organizational development differs from the incidental change process. It is, therefore, a continuous process, whereas change processes are often temporarily.
This also emphasizes the relevance of OD. In this VUCA world, change is becoming a constant factor. OD is an integral approach to ensuring this constant change. Organizational development is not easy. It is a fairly technical field, and so are the interventions. In this section, we will list 18 OD interventions, also called organizational development techniques, that are listed by Cummings and Worley This is far from an exhaustive list.
Human process interventions are change programs that relate to interpersonal relations, group, and organizational dynamics. These are some of the earliest and best-known interventions used in OD. Individual interventions. These interventions are targeted to the individual, often aimed at improving communication with others. The individual is coached on behaviors that are counter-productive. Group interventions. These interventions are aimed at the process, content, or structure of the group.
Content relates to what the group works on. Structure relates to recurring methods it uses to reach tasks and deal with external issues. All of these can be improved.
Third-party interventions. Third-party interventions are often used when there are conflicts. Not all conflicts are bad, but bad conflicts should be resolved quickly. The third-party intervention helps to control and resolve the conflict. Oftentimes, the third party is the OD consultant. Team building. Team building is the best-known OD intervention.
It refers to a range of activities that help groups improve the way they accomplish tasks. Organizational confrontation meeting. The confrontation meeting is aimed at identifying problems, setting priorities and action targets, and begin working on identified problems organization-wide. Intergroup relations interventions. These interventions are aimed at diagnosing and understanding intergroup relations. Similarly, problems are identified, priorities and action targets set, before working on the identified problems.
Large-group interventions. These interventions are somewhere between the two above. The aim is to bring a large number of organization members and other stakeholders together to identify and organize members together to identify and resolve organization-wide problems, to design new approaches to structuring and managing the firm, or to propose future directions of the organization.
Technostructural interventions refer to change programs aimed at the technology and structure of the organization. Organizational structural design. The functional structure of the organization is key to how it will function.
We all know the classical hierarchical organizational chart. This is referred to as the functional structure. Other structures are divisional, matrix, process, customer-centric, and network structure. Key activities in organizational design are reengineering and downsizing. Total quality management. Total quality management is also known as continuous process improvement, lean, and six-sigma. Work design. Work is done to achieve an outcome. Depending on which approach is chosen, different skills are needed.
Designing work in a way that leads to optimum productivity is called work design. Job enrichment. Job enrichment is part of work design. The goal here is to create a job that is interesting and challenging for the person doing it.
Examples of factors to be taken into account are skill variety, task identity, autonomy, and feedback. These are organizational development techniques that focus on the way the individual is managed.
Many of these are used by the HR department as well. Performance management. Good performance management includes techniques such as goal setting, performance appraisal , and reward systems. Developing talent. Diversity interventions. Diversity is a source of innovation.
This includes age, gender, race, sexual orientation, disabilities, and culture and value orientation. These interventions are aimed at increasing diversity. Wellness interventions. Employee wellness interventions include stress management programs, and employee assistance programs. They address social trends and aim for a healthy work-life balance. These organizational development techniques focus on the change processes that shake the organization to its core.
The OD department plays a crucial part in executing on this change. Transformational change. This is a change process that involves changing the basic character of the organization, including how it is structured and the way it operates.
Continuous change. Continuous change is an intervention that enables organizations to change themselves continually. A popular example is the learning organization. Transorganizational change. Transorganizational change involves change interventions that move beyond a single organization. This includes mergers, allying, acquisitions, and strategic networking.
As I mentioned, this is not an exhaustive list. Techniques like financial planning, long-range forecasting, integrating technology, manpower planning, and designing appraisal systems can be added, as well as many, many more.
Policies like performance management, goal setting, appraisal, and talent management practices are all essential to effective organizational development. Another commonality is that both HRM and OD start at the business strategy — the mission, values, and vision of the organization. Both then go on to define the activities needed to implement that strategy in their respective fields.
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Development & Change. 10e. © General Introduction to Organization Development. 1 Thomas G. Cummings, professor, chair of the Department of Management and Organiza- _pdf; San Diego International Airport, http://hondapeople.org
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Refer book. Order inspection copy. The authors work from a strong theoretical foundation to describe, in practical terms, how behavioral science knowledge can be used to develop organizational strategies, structures, and processes. Learning Objectives: Each chapter opens with succinct objectives for the student to learn and understand as they read the chapter.
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Organization development OD is the study and implementation of practices, systems, and techniques that affect organizational change.Reply
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The Growth and Relevance of Organization Development. 4. A Short History of extended OD into community and societal change;55 Thomas Cummings, whose work on sociotechni- publicationid__pdf; The Impacts of Constrained.Reply