nomenclature and classes of organic compounds pdf

Nomenclature and classes of organic compounds pdf

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24.1: Functional Groups and Classes of Organic Compounds

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Systematic Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry

Next In Line: Nitrile, Aldehyde, Ketone, Alcohol, Thiol, Amine

24.1: Functional Groups and Classes of Organic Compounds

You were previously introduced to several structural units that chemists use to classify organic compounds and predict their reactivities. These functional groups, which determine the chemical reactivity of a molecule under a given set of conditions, can consist of a single atom such as Cl or a group of atoms such as CO 2 H. The major families of organic compounds are characterized by their functional groups. Halogen-substituted alkanes, alkenes, and arenes form a second major family of organic compounds, which include the alkyl halides and the aryl halides.

The systematic nomenclature of organic compounds indicates the positions of substituents using the lowest numbers possible to identify their locations in the carbon chain of the parent compound.

If two compounds have the same systematic name, then they are the same compound. Although systematic names are preferred because they are unambiguous, many organic compounds are known by their common names rather than their systematic names. Thus methanal and ethanal, respectively, are the systematic names for formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Recall that in the systematic nomenclature of aromatic compounds, the positions of groups attached to the aromatic ring are indicated by numbers, starting with 1 and proceeding around the ring in the direction that produces the lowest possible numbers.

In common nomenclature, in contrast, the prefixes ortho-, meta-, and para- are used to describe the relative positions of groups attached to an aromatic ring. If the CH 3 groups in dimethylbenzene, whose common name is xylene, are adjacent to each other, the compound is commonly called ortho-xylene, abbreviated o-xylene.

If they are across from each other on the ring, the compound is commonly called para-xylene or p-xylene. When the arrangement is intermediate between those of ortho- and para- compounds, the name is meta-xylene or m-xylene. We begin our discussion of the structure and reactivity of organic compounds by exploring structural variations in the simple saturated hydrocarbons known as alkanes.

These compounds serve as the scaffolding to which the various functional groups are most often attached. Functional groups determine the chemical reactivity of an organic molecule. Functional groups are structural units that determine the chemical reactivity of a molecule under a given set of conditions.

Organic compounds are classified into several major categories based on the functional groups they contain. In the systematic names of organic compounds, numbers indicate the positions of functional groups in the basic hydrocarbon framework.

Many organic compounds also have common names, which use the prefix form—for a compound that contains no carbons other than those in the functional group and acet—for those that have one additional carbon atom. Learning Objectives To know the major classes of organic compounds and identify important functional groups.

Summary Functional groups determine the chemical reactivity of an organic molecule. Conceptual Problems Can two substances have the same systematic name and be different compounds? Is a carbon—carbon multiple bond considered a functional group?

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In order to give compounds a name, certain rules must be followed. This is to give consistency to the names. It also enables every compound to have a unique name, which is not possible with the common names used for example in industry. We will first look at some of the steps that need to be followed when naming a compound, and then try to apply these rules to some specific examples. A good general rule to follow is to start at the end the suffix and work backwards from right to left in the name.

Systematic Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry

Alchemists frequently assigned names to substances with the intent of concealing what they were working on from their fellow workers. This attitude has gradually changed throughout the years, so that chemists now strive to reveal their latest theories or discoveries to others either orally or through the printed medium. To communicate easily with one another, it has been necessary to devise a special language which we call chemical nomenclature 1,2,3,4,5.

Table of Functional Group Priorities for Nomenclature

The content of this report will be republished and disseminated as a four-sided lift-out document see supplementary information which will be available for inclusion in textbooks and similar publications.

Next In Line: Nitrile, Aldehyde, Ketone, Alcohol, Thiol, Amine

Organic Chemistry Nomenclature Quizzes. If you have a molecule with, say, a carboxylic acid and a ketone you consult the table. The functional group with the highest priority will be the one which gives its suffix to the name of the molecule. However this really is an example of something you have to either look up , memorize, or have a computer do for you. Note that with the exception of sulfonic acids, these are all carboxylic acid derivatives. For example, pentenol.

Chemical nomenclature is used to identify a chemical species by means of written or spoken words and enables a common language for communication amongst chemists. Nomenclature for chemical compounds additionally contains an explicit or implied relationship to the structure of the compound, in order that the reader or listener can deduce the structure from the name. This purpose requires a system of principles and rules, the application of which gives rise to a systematic nomenclature. Of course, a wide range of traditional names, semisystematic or trivial, are also in use for a core group of common compounds. Detailing the latest rules and international practice, this new volume can be considered a guide to the essential organic chemical nomenclature, commonly described as the "Blue Book".

24.1: Functional Groups and Classes of Organic Compounds

Conceptual Problems

You were previously introduced to several structural units that chemists use to classify organic compounds and predict their reactivities. These functional groups, which determine the chemical reactivity of a molecule under a given set of conditions, can consist of a single atom such as Cl or a group of atoms such as CO 2 H. The major families of organic compounds are characterized by their functional groups. Halogen-substituted alkanes, alkenes, and arenes form a second major family of organic compounds, which include the alkyl halides and the aryl halides. The systematic nomenclature of organic compounds indicates the positions of substituents using the lowest numbers possible to identify their locations in the carbon chain of the parent compound. If two compounds have the same systematic name, then they are the same compound. Although systematic names are preferred because they are unambiguous, many organic compounds are known by their common names rather than their systematic names.

It seems that you're in Germany. We have a dedicated site for Germany. Hellwinkel gives a short and general introduction to the systematic nomenclature of organic compounds. On the basis of carefully selected examples it offers simple and concise guidelines for the generation of systematic compound names as codified by the IUPAC rules. Besides the most common compound classes important special areas such as cyclophanes, carbohydrates, organometallic and isotopically modified compounds and stereochemical specifications are dealt with.

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