File Name: paediatrics and child health mary rudolf writer.zip
Spock was the first pediatrician to study psychoanalysis to try to understand children's needs and family dynamics. His ideas about childcare influenced several generations of parents to be more flexible and affectionate with their children, and to treat them as individuals. However, his theories were also widely criticized by colleagues for relying too heavily on anecdotal evidence rather than serious academic research. Spock was an activist in the New Left and anti Vietnam War movements during the s and early s.
At the time, his books were criticized for propagating permissiveness and an expectation of instant gratification which allegedly led young people to join these movements—a charge that Spock denied.
Spock also won an Olympic gold medal in rowing in while attending Yale University. Spock studied literature and history at Yale. Standing a lanky 6 feet and 4 inches, he also was active in college rowing. Eventually he became a part of the Olympic rowing crew Men's Eights that won a gold medal at the games in Paris.
At Yale, he was inducted into the Eta chapter of the Zeta Psi fraternity and then into the senior society Scroll and Key. He attended the Yale School of Medicine for two years before shifting to Columbia University 's College of Physicians and Surgeons , from which he graduated first in his class in Jane Cheney married Spock in and assisted him in the research and writing of Dr.
The book has sold more than 50 million copies in 42 languages. Jane Cheney Spock was a civil liberties advocate and mother of two sons. Jane and Benjamin Spock divorced in In , Spock married Mary Morgan.
She was arrested with him many times for civil disobedience. Once they were arrested in Washington, D. When arrested, Morgan was strip searched; Spock was not. She sued the jail and the mayor of Washington, D. The American Civil Liberties Union took the case, and won.
Morgan also introduced Spock to massage, yoga, and a macrobiotic diet, and meditation, which reportedly improved his health. She continues to publish the book with the help of co-author Robert Needlman. Baby and Child Care still sells worldwide. For most of his life, Spock wore Brooks Brothers suits and shirts with detachable collars, but at age 75, for the first time in his life, Mary Morgan got him to try blue jeans. She introduced him to Transactional analysis TA therapists, joined him in meditation twice a day, and cooked him a macrobiotic diet.
He adapted to her lifestyle, as she did to his. There were 40 years difference in their ages, but Spock would tell reporters, when questioned about their age difference, that they were both Spock had a second sailboat named Turtle , which he lived aboard and sailed in Maine in the summers.
They lived only on boats, with no house, for most of 20 years. Kennedy Presidential Library for his lifelong commitment to disarmament and peaceable child-rearing. Spock died at a house he was renting in La Jolla, California , on March 15, His ashes are buried in Camden, Maine.
Its message to mothers is that "you know more than you think you do. According to the New York Times , Baby and Child Care was, throughout its first 52 years, the second-best-selling book, next to the Bible.
Spock advocated ideas about parenting that were, at the time, considered out of the mainstream. Over time, his books helped to bring about major change. Previously, experts [ citation needed ] had told parents that babies needed to learn to sleep on a regular schedule, and that picking them up and holding them whenever they cried would only teach them to cry more and not to sleep through the night a notion that borrows from behaviorism.
They were told [ citation needed ] to feed their children on a regular schedule, and that they should not pick them up, kiss them, or hug them, because that would not prepare them to be strong and independent individuals in a harsh world. In contrast Spock encouraged parents to see their children as individuals, and not to apply a one-size-fits all philosophy to them.
By the late s however, Spock's opposition to the Vietnam War had damaged his reputation; the edition of Baby and Child Care sold half as many copies of the prior edition. Spock on Vietnam and co-wrote an autobiography entitled Spock on Spock with Mary Morgan Spock , in which he stated his attitude toward aging: Delay and Deny.
In the seventh edition of Baby and Child Care, published a few weeks after he died, Spock advocated for a bold change in children's diets, recommending that all children switch to a vegan diet after the age of 2.
After making the dietary change, he lost 50 pounds, regained his ability to walk and became healthier overall. The revised edition stated children on an all-plant diet will reduce their risk of developing heart disease, obesity, high blood pressure, diabetes and certain diet-related cancers.
Studies suggest that vegetarians children are leaner, and adult vegetarians are known to be at lower risk of such diseases. Spock's approach to childhood nutrition was criticized by a number of experts, including his co-author, Boston pediatrician Dr. Steven J. Parker,  as too extreme and likely to result in nutritional deficiencies unless it is very carefully planned and executed, something that would be difficult for working parents. Spock advocated that infants should not be placed on their back when sleeping, commenting in his edition that "if [an infant] vomits, he's more likely to choke on the vomitus.
Advocates of evidence-based medicine have used this as an example of the importance of basing health-care recommendations on statistical evidence, with one researcher estimating that as many as 50, infant deaths in Europe, Australia, and the US could have been prevented had this advice been altered by , when such evidence became available.
In the s, Spock favored circumcision of males performed within a few days of birth. However, in the revision of Baby and Child Care he concurred with a American Academy of Pediatrics task force that there was no medical reason to recommend routine circumcision, and in a article for Redbook magazine he stated that "circumcision of males is traumatic, painful, and of questionable value. Spock was politically outspoken and active in the movement to end the Vietnam War.
In , he and four others including William Sloane Coffin , Marcus Raskin , Mitchell Goodman , and Michael Ferber were singled out for prosecution by then Attorney General Ramsey Clark on charges of conspiracy to counsel, aid, and abet resistance to the draft.
His two-year prison sentence was never served; the case was appealed and in a federal court set aside his conviction. In , Spock signed the " Writers and Editors War Tax Protest " pledge, vowing to refuse tax payments in protest against the Vietnam War,  and he later became a sponsor of the War Tax Resistance project, which practiced and advocated tax resistance as a form of anti-war protest. In , Dr. In the United States presidential election , Spock was the People's Party candidate with a platform that called for free medical care; the repeal of " victimless crime " laws, including the legalization of abortion , homosexuality , and cannabis ; a guaranteed minimum income for families; and for an end to American military interventionism and the immediate withdrawal of all American troops from foreign countries.
David, commanding officer of Fort Dix, asking for permission to distribute campaign literature and to hold an election-related campaign meeting. On the basis of Fort Dix regulations and , General David refused the request. Spock et al. Spock was the party's nominee for Vice President. Norman Vincent Peale was a popular preacher who supported the Vietnam War. During the late s, Peale criticized the anti-Vietnam War movement and the perceived laxity of that era, placing the blame on Dr.
Spock's books: "The U. Spock baby plan of instant gratification of needs. In the s and s, blame was placed on Spock for the disorderliness of young people, many of whose parents had been devotees of Baby and Child Care. Spock himself, in his autobiography, pointed out that he had never advocated permissiveness; also, that the attacks and claims that he had ruined American youth only arose after his public opposition to the Vietnam war.
He regarded these claims as ad hominem attacks, whose political motivation and nature were clear. The Permissive Label: A couple weeks after my indictment [for "conspiracy to counsel, aid and abet resistance to the military draft"], I was accused by Reverend Norman Vincent Peale, a well-known clergyman and author who supported the Vietnam War, of corrupting an entire generation. In a sermon widely reported in the press, Reverend Peale blamed me for all the lack of patriotism, lack of responsibility, and lack of discipline of the young people who opposed the war.
All these failings, he said, were due to my having told their parents to give them "instant gratification" as babies. I was showered with blame in dozens of editorials and columns from primarily conservative newspapers all over the country heartily agreeing with Peale's assertions. Many parents have since stopped me on the street or in airports to thank me for helping them to raise fine children, and they've often added, "I don't see any instant gratification in Baby and Child Care ".
I answer that they're right—I've always advised parents to give their children firm, clear leadership and to ask for cooperation and politeness in return. On the other hand I've also received letters from conservative mothers saying, in effect, "Thank God I've never used your horrible book. That's why my children take baths, wear clean clothes and get good grades in school.
Since I received the first accusation twenty-two years after Baby and Child Care was originally published—and since those who write about how harmful my book is invariably assure me they've never used it—I think it's clear that the hostility is to my politics rather than my pediatric advice.
And though I've been denying the accusation for twenty-five years, one of the first questions I get from many reporters and interviewers is, "Doctor Spock, are you still permissive? In June , Spock told Associated Press journalist David Beard ,  there was a link between pediatrics and political activism:.
People have said, "You've turned your back on pediatrics. It took me until I was in my 60s to realize that politics was a part of pediatrics. Conservatives also criticize Spock for being interested in the ideas of Sigmund Freud and John Dewey and his efforts to integrate their philosophies into the general population. John Dewey and Freud said that kids don't have to be disciplined into adulthood but can direct themselves toward adulthood by following their own will .
Spock had two children: Michael and John. Michael was formerly the director of the Boston Children's Museum and since retired from the museum profession; John is the owner of a construction firm. Spock's grandson Peter, Michael's son, committed suicide on Christmas of at the age of 22 by jumping from the roof of the Children's Museum. In , while at Yale, Spock was part of the all-Yale Men's eight rowing team at the Paris Olympics , captained by James Rockefeller , later president of what would become Citigroup.
Competing on the Seine , they won the gold medal. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. American pediatrician and writer — New Haven, Connecticut , U. San Diego , California , U. Biography portal. BBC News. Retrieved October 24, New Netherland Institute. Private: Dr.
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A parenting style is a psychological construct representing standard strategies that parents use in their child rearing. The quality of parenting can be more essential than the quantity of time spent with the child. For instance, a parent can spend an entire afternoon with his or her child, yet the parent may be engaging in a different activity and not demonstrating enough interest towards the child. Parenting styles are the representation of how parents respond to and make demands on their children. Parenting practices are specific behaviors, while parenting styles represent broader patterns of parenting practices.
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