File Name: hospitality industry and factors that affect customer loyalty 2013 to 2019.zip
The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of servicescapes in hotels on customer satisfaction. Data were collected from hotel customers.
Vietnam is a country that is rich and diverse in tourism resource at many different regions. Along with the transformation of the economy into the service sector under the guideline of the Government, researches in this field on customer loyalty, which reveal important reasons for going back to use service from customers should be done at different areas. By using qualitative and quantitative research, relations and level of impact between influencial factors have been illustrated, which are sources of basic orientation for improving the quality of hotel services, customer satisfaction and customer loyalty in hotels at Thanh Hoa. It is undeniable that loyalty is a core element of the customer relationship management system 1.
Raouf Rather. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. IntroductionCustomer loyalty, a dominant theme in marketing research, has become an essential concern for managers, and a strategic compulsion for many. This increasing concern has mainly been due to profound competition, particularly in service industries, and the current focus on the relationship between customers and service providers, which is the essence of the relational marketing approach.
The hotel industry has evolved into truly global industries within which both customers and producers are distributed worldwide. Utilization of hotel facilities like restaurants, rooms, bars, nightclubs, or health clubs has been no longer considered a luxury. Enhancing sophistication and experience of consumer's demands matched with the enhancing business competition has created a new challenge to hotel industry.
Hotel managers therefore are pursuing ways to understand the most influential factors effects customer loyalty that may assist them to implement marketing strategies which will ensure that hoteliers will receive customer loyalty from existing and prospective customersto maximize their lifetime value. For several years, the development of customer loyalty is the main objective of marketing activities of numerous firms. In the hospitality industry, currently one of the foremost challenges for managers is to offer and maintain customer satisfaction and loyalty.
Researchers proposed that benefits like switching costs, perceptions of value and trust lead to relationship commitment. This involves that commitment towards the firm could be an important driver of customer loyalty e. Researchers have highlighted the significance of satisfaction and commitment in building positive behaviors and loyalty in hospitality sector. Companies are often looking to provide holistic and layered experiences which not only satisfy the consumers, but also connect consumers affectively towards company e.
However, satisfaction as an explanation for longterm loyalty is limited as it fails to portray the psychological meaning and depth of consumer's responses to consumption states, and measures only rational evaluation of precedent experience e. It is therefore critical to understand the role of other relational determinants of loyalty.
This is because, in addition to providing satisfying experiences, customer loyalty is likely to be earned through relational determinants such as customer commitment within the service relationship, which have received considerably less attention in the literature. Thus, the need for further research on customer satisfaction, commitment and customer loyalty in four and four star hotels in different geographical contexts in this view is very essential and timely.
Our literature search indicates that there was limited study on customer satisfaction, commitment and customer loyalty in the hospitality industry particularly in Jammu and Kashmir, India even though recent events indicate that the sector is highly competitive. In view of the research deficiency, the aim of this study is to investigate the effects of customer satisfaction on customer loyalty, to investigate the effects of commitment on customer loyalty, to examine the influence of customer satisfaction on commitment and to suggest the marketing practices for enhancing customer loyalty in hotel industry of Jammu and Kashmir, India Figure 1.
The results of this study are going to perceptive to service marketing scholars and relevant to hotel firms who are interested in benchmarking for best practices in the concepts of hotel services. Moreover, the findings can yield valuable information for hotel industry in developing effective marketing strategies by not only remaining the competition but also strengthening their long-term profit margins.
Review of Literature Customer LoyaltyOn the basis of relationship marketing, investigators have contended that maintaining and building of customer loyalty has turn out to be an essential marketing strategy particularly in the hotel industry e.
Behavioral perspective of loyalty has been typified as purchasing behaviors like intensity, frequency, proportion , repeat purchase intentions, and word-of-mouth recommendations Baloglu, Therefore, this study suggests that customer satisfaction will influence customer loyalty with hotel service providers.
Customer Satisfaction and Customer Loyalty Customer Commitment and Customer LoyaltyIn relationship marketing research, commitment acts as one of the vital concepts Fullerton, ;Rather, In the hospitality sector, customer commitment has been identified to be a key driver of customer loyalty e. It has been linked to overall firm performance and is seen as a primary objective for managers Anderson et al. Customer satisfaction has been strongly linked to the development of commitment Hennig-Thurau et al.
Hypothesis DevelopmentBased on the literature review, the following hypotheses have been formulated: H1: Customer satisfaction has a positive association with customer loyalty. H1: Customer commitment has a positive influence with customer loyalty. H3: Customer satisfaction has a positive impact with commitment. Research Methodology Research Instrument and Questionnaire DesignTo ensure the validity, all the measurement items were taken from previous studies; however, little modifications were done to make them adequate for the present study.
Sample and Data CollectionFor this research, the population was confined to those customers who had stayed at five and four star hotels in Jammu and Kashmir at least once for a night or more. List of hotels was obtained from Tourism Departments of Jammu and Kashmir.
Questionnaire was pre-tested with 20 participants selected randomly from 6, star hotels to make sure that they understand the wording and meaning of questions. The responses indicated that the questions were well worded. Furthermore, to diminish the mistakes linked with written questionnaires, participants were given the chance to suggest for any extra explanations about the questionnaire.
This was helpful in attaining content validity. Simple random sampling method was used to collect the data. Sample size was decided as per the number of items to be used to study customer commitment, customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. Since this study has 12 items, hence it was determined to take as sample size. Descriptive statistics was employed to calculate the means and standard deviations of the constructs.
Exploratory factor analysis EFA by using principal component analysis and varimax rotation was adopted to minimize the variable and factor numbers. Finally regression analysis was conducted to examine the relationships among commitment satisfaction, and loyalty.
ResultsThis section presents the empirical part of the study. It begins with the background data of the respondents. Table 1 illustrates the background and travel characteristics data on gender, occupation, age, income, nature of visit, purpose of travel, source of information about hotel, frequency of stay at hotel, customer status, country of origin, and the hotel preferences of the respondents.
The detailed results are presented are table 1. Table 2 presents the descriptive analysis of the dependent as well as independent constructs.
All the variables have moderate to high mean values. Cronbach's statistics criterion was used to measure reliability. The variables are regarded adequate when the Cronbach's alpha values are greater than the suggested value of 0. On the basis of research results as presented in table, the Cronbach's alpha values for all the variables are more than 0.
The reliability values are presented in table 2. All alpha scores were above the recommended. Reliability analysis was also tested to retain reliable items on the basis of inter-item correlation greater than 0. Validity can be measured with the help of the KMO value which is higher or equal to 0.
They are valid Hair et al. KMO value was 0. So, data was valid. Based on the principal components analysis and varimax procedure in orthogonal rotation, the results showed that the eigen values for all the constructs were greater than 1.
In terms of convergent validity, the factor loadings for all items within a construct were more than 0. The EFA examination generated all the three factors which accounted for a acceptable The details of the factor analysis are presented in table 3. The findings reveal that there is a positive correlation between the key constructs. The first regression model was used to investigate the relationship among customer satisfactions, commitment and loyalty.
As can be seen in Table 4, customer satisfaction has significant positive regression weights, indicating higher customer satisfaction can leads to higher level of customer loyalty. In addition, that customer commitment is another factor that affects customer loyalty. As can be seen in Table 4, customer commitment has also significant positive regression weights, indicating higher customer commitment can leads to higher level of customer loyalty.
The results demonstrate that, one-unit increase in customer commitment enhances the degree of loyalty by. The regression model second examines the association between satisfaction and commitment. It is also significant to note that all the hypotheses were supported by the analysis.
The results are presented in table 4. Discussion and ConclusionThe present research contributes to the literature of hospitality by representing the effects of commitment and satisfaction on loyalty in hotel industry. Descriptive statistics, exploratory factory analysis, simple and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the data and based on it to test the relationships between the constructs. The result of this study found that all hypotheses are supported and the findings revealed that customer satisfaction and commitment had positive and significant effects on loyalty.
To offset competitors and to obtain customer loyalty, hoteliers should be able to acquire higher customer satisfaction levels for the service supplied and generates value for their customers. Such constructive hotel attachments and evaluations in turn determine levels of customer loyalty towards the service providers. Another vital finding of our empirical results regards the centrality of satisfaction in the brand loyalty development.
Satisfaction was also identified to have a strong positive impact on commitment. The relationship between satisfaction and commitment construct was stronger than the direct association between satisfaction and loyalty.
This empirical result supports the notion that satisfaction is a necessary initiator in the transition to loyalty Bowden et al. A key finding of this reach thus is that satisfaction, in and of itself, may not be adequate to develop sustained and enduring loyalty in the hospitality industry.
The study analysis recommends that commitment also have an important influence on the development of hotel customer loyalty within the sector. The strength of the relationship among satisfaction and the other relational constructs commitment in the model recommends that hospitality management would require to continue to invest in monitoring and measuring satisfaction performance.
In addition, satisfied hotel customers tend to proud about the hotel, feel committed to the hotel satisfied customers are most likely to have the intention of re-patronizing the hospitality service and care longterm success of the hotel. Commitment also proved to be a strong determinant of customer loyalty. The result demonstrates that customer commitment to hotel guests, certainly adds to customer loyalty in Jammu and Kashmir hospitality sector. The finding maintains the view that commitment which results from affective attachment to the service offering or brand by the customer acts as an essential driver of customer loyalty in hospitality sector e.
As hotel service providers recognize consumer needs and commit resources to satisfy them, they anticipate to promote customer loyalty.
The challenge for hotel industry is how to create what Mattila , referred to as affective commitment represented by strong emotional attachment to the hotels.
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The study aims to investigate the effect of four customer relationship management CRM dimensions, namely, customer orientation, customer relationship management organization, managing knowledge and CRM based technology, on customer satisfaction in the hospitality sector of Kashmir. A survey instrument with a slight modification is adapted from literature and is exercised on the customers of three- and four-star hotels operating in Kashmir. A total of responses received using systematic random sampling were subjected to exploratory factor and regression analyses to uncover the underlying relationships among dependent and independent variables. The results revealed a significant and positive relationship between CRM dimensions, namely, customer orientation, managing knowledge and CRM organization on customer satisfaction. Though the results also indicate a significant positive effect of CRM-based technology on customer satisfaction, the magnitude of this effect is very weak. This suggests that hotel organizations use technology as a mere tool to store customer information only. Thus, CRM-based technology should be used by the hotels to analyze customer information and, subsequently, design customized products.
Сьюзан стояла рядом, у нее подгибались колени и пылали щеки. Все в комнате оставили свои занятия и смотрели на огромный экран и на Дэвида Беккера. Профессор вертел кольцо в пальцах и изучал надпись.
Цифровая крепость исчезнет бесследно. Словно ее никогда не. Мы похороним ключ Хейла и станем молиться Богу, чтобы Дэвид нашел копию, которая была у Танкадо. Дэвид, вспомнила Сьюзан. Она заставляла себя не думать о .
Парень побелел. Беккер попридержал его еще минутку, потом отпустил.
Сняв трубку, набрал номер справочной службы и через тридцать секунд получил номер главного офиса больницы. В какой бы стране вы ни находились, во всех учреждениях действует одно и то же правило: никто долго не выдерживает звонка телефонного аппарата. Не важно, сколько посетителей стоят в очереди, - секретарь всегда бросит все дела и поспешит поднять трубку. Беккер отбил шестизначный номер. Еще пара секунд, и его соединили с больничным офисом. Наверняка сегодня к ним поступил только один канадец со сломанным запястьем и сотрясением мозга, и его карточку нетрудно будет найти. Беккер понимал, что в больнице не захотят назвать имя и адрес больного незнакомому человеку, но он хорошо подготовился к разговору.
Может. - Может. - Мы должны позвонить ему и проверить. - Мидж, он же заместитель директора, - застонал Бринкерхофф. - Я уверен, у него все под контролем. Давай не… - Перестань, Чед, не будь ребенком.
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