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Group formation and development pdf

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What are the Four Stages of Team Development?

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The Five Stages of Team Development

He later added a fifth stage, Adjourning, in the s. The 'Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing' theory is an elegant and helpful explanation of team development and behaviour.

What are the Four Stages of Team Development?

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Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. The Five Stages of Team Development. Asad Khan Safi. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. Teamwork is also about bringing the best out of each individual in the pursuit of a collective goal deemed worthy of being realized.

It provides an opportunity to come together and establish a common ground for the fulfillment of specific objectives. Empathy, appreciation and encouragement are some of the critical ingredients of effective teamwork. The vision must be bold, stir the intellect and yet move the heart. What is at stake needs to be clearly spelled out.

Individual decision making has taken a back stage and paved the way for team management approach for problem solving and decision making which has been productive for the organisations. Nippard B. Teamwork brings success no matter how you define victory. According to his research findings, if any team wants to deliver high quality results than these four stages are inevitable for the team members. They will be joining other teams and moving on to other work in the near future. For a high performing team, the end of a project brings on feelings of sadness as the team members have effectively become as one and now are going their separate ways.

The five stages: Stage 1: Forming Stage 2: Storming Stage 3: Norming Stage 4: Performing Stage 5: Adjourning Characteristic of successful team There are various indicators of whether a team is working effectively together as a group. The team leader will need to be actively involved with such teams.

The sooner the team leader addresses issues and helps the team move to a more effective way of working together, the more likely the project is to end successfully. In this first meeting, team members are introduced to each. They share information about their backgrounds, interests and experience and form first impressions of each other. They are not yet working on the project. During this initial stage of team growth, it is important for the team leader to be very clear about team goals and provide clear direction regarding the project.

The team is dependent on the team leader to guide them. This stage is not avoidable; every team — most especially a new team who has never worked together before — goes through this part of developing as a team. In this stage, the team members compete with each other for status and for acceptance of their ideas.

They have different opinions on what should be done and how it should be done — which causes conflict within the team. As they go progress through this stage, with the guidance of the team leader, they learn how to solve problems together, function both independently and together as a team, and settle into roles and responsibilities on the team.

For team members who do not like conflict, this is a difficult stage to go through. The team leader needs to be adept at facilitating the team through this stage — ensuring the team members learn to listen to each other and respect their differences and ideas.

This includes not allowing any one team member to control all conversations and to facilitate contributions from all members of the team. The team leader will need to coach some team members to be more assertive and other team members on how to be more effective listeners. This stage will come to a closure when the team becomes more accepting of each other and learns how to work together for the good of the project.

At this point, the team leader should start transitioning some decision making to the team to allow them more independence, but still stay involved to resolve any conflicts as quickly as possible. Some teams, however, do not move beyond this stage and the entire project is spent in conflict and low morale and motivation, making it difficult to get the project completed. Usually teams comprised of members who are professionally immature will have a difficult time getting past this stage.

They are no longer focused on their individual goals, but rather are focused on developing a way of working together processes and procedures. They begin to see the value in those differences on the team. Working together as a team seems more natural. In this stage, the team has agreed on their team rules for working together, how they will share information and resolve team conflict, and what tools and processes they will use to get the job done. The team members begin to trust each other and actively seek each other out for assistance and input.

Rather than compete against each other, they are now helping each other to work toward a common goal. The team members also start to make significant progress on the project as they begin working together more effectively. In this stage, the team leader may not be as involved in decision making and problem solving since the team members are working better together and can take on more responsibility in these areas. The team has greater self-direction and is able to resolve issues and conflict as a group.

On occasion, however, the team leader may step in to move things along if the team gets stuck. The team leader should always ensure that the team members are working collaboratively and may begin to function as a coach to the members of the team. The focus is on reaching the goal as a group. The team members have gotten to know each other, trust each other and rely on each other.

Not every team makes it to this level of team growth; some teams stop at Stage 3: Norming. The highly performing team functions without oversight and the members have become interdependent. The team is highly motivated to get the job done. They can make decisions and problem solve quickly and effectively. If there needs to be a change in team processes — the team will come to agreement on changing processes on their own without reliance on the team leader.

In this stage, the team leader is not involved in decision making, problem solving or other such activities involving the day-to-day work of the team. The team members work effectively as a group and do not need the oversight that is required at the other stages.

The team leader will continue to monitor the progress of the team and celebrate milestone achievements with the team to continue to build team camaraderie. The team leader will also serve as the gateway when decisions need to be reached at a higher level within the organization. Even in this stage, there is a possibility that the team may revert back to another stage. If there are significant changes that throw a wrench into the works, it is possible for the team to revert back to an earlier stage until they are able to manage through the change.

This stage looks at the team from the perspective of the well-being of the team rather than from the perspective of managing a team through the original four stages of team growth. The team leader should ensure that there is time for the team to celebrate the success of the project and capture best practices for future use.

Or, if it was not a successful project — to evaluate what happened and capture lessons learned for future projects. This also provides the team the opportunity to say good-bye to each other and wish each other luck as they pursue their next endeavor. It is likely that any group that reached Stage 4: Performing will keep in touch with each other as they have become a very close knit group and there will be sadness at separating and moving on to other projects independently. Related Papers. Effect of evolution of group stages on project communication and performance Under the Guidance of.

By Ayushi Rastogi. By Agaba Herbert. Download pdf. Remember me on this computer. Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link.

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Anyone can learn for free on OpenLearn, but signing-up will give you access to your personal learning profile and record of achievements that you earn while you study. Start this free course now. Just create an account and sign in. Enrol and complete the course for a free statement of participation or digital badge if available. How do teams form?

A team does not become high performing from day one, uniting them and aligning the team around a common goal takes time. They normally go through a developmental sequence which Bruce Tuckman identified as: Forming, Storming, Norming, and Performing. Understanding the way groups form can help managers shape interventions that enable a team to become high performing more quickly. During this phase team members do not know each other very well and can be impersonal, guarded and polite. They are also waiting and watching for how things will unfold. There is high dependence on leader for guidance and direction.

The Five Stages of Team Development

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The forming—storming—norming—performing model of group development was first proposed by Bruce Tuckman in , [1] who said that these phases are all necessary and inevitable in order for a team to grow, face up to challenges, tackle problems, find solutions, plan work, and deliver results. The team meets and learns about the opportunities and challenges, and then agrees on goals and begins to tackle the tasks. Team members tend to behave quite independently.


Formal and informal groups form within organizations for different reasons. Formal groups gather to perform various tasks. Informal groups evolve to gratify a variety of members' needs not met by formal groups. Both go through similar stages of development. Mutual Acceptance Mutual acceptance is the first stage in a group's development. In this stage, the focus is on the interpersonal relations among the members. Members assess one another with regard to trustworthiness, emotional comfort, and acceptance.

The Group Formation Problem: An Algorithmic Approach to Learning Group Formation

Our discussion so far has focused mostly on a team as an entity, not on the individuals inside the team. This is like describing a car by its model and color without considering what is under the hood.


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