File Name: wastewater treatment biological and chemical processes .zip
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Samer Published Chemistry. This chapter elucidates the technologies of biological and chemical wastewater treatment processes.
Biological wastewater treatment — which relies on microorganisms to break down organic waste — has a long history, and ranges from simple cesspits to conventional activated sludge plants all the way to technologically advanced solutions like MABR. Biological treatments rely on bacteria, nematodes, or other small organisms to break down organic wastes using normal cellular processes. Wastewater typically contains a buffet of organic matter, such as garbage, wastes, and partially digested foods. It also may contain pathogenic organisms, heavy metals, and toxins. The goal of biological wastewater treatment is to create a system in which the results of decomposition are easily collected for proper disposal. Biological treatment usually is divided into aerobic and anaerobic processes.
The occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the environment has become a worldwide environmental concern. After administration and excretion, pharmaceuticals end up in wastewater treatment plants. These plants, typically employing biological treatment, are not designed for their removal. Hence, numerous pharmaceuticals are emitted into the environment. Chemical treatment processes like ozonation can effectively remove pharmaceuticals, however these costly processes have disadvantages such as high energy consumption and by-product formation. On the contrary, biological treatment processes are less effective for pharmaceutical removal, but can complement chemical process by for instance by-product removal. In this dissertation the combination of biological and chemical treatment processes for pharmaceutical removal was therefore studied.
Wastewater treatment is a process used to remove contaminants from wastewater or sewage and convert it into an effluent that can be returned to the water cycle with acceptable impact on the environment, or reused for various purposes called water reclamation. Pollutants in wastewater are removed, converted or broken down during the treatment process. The treatment of wastewater is part of the overarching field of sanitation. Sanitation also includes the management of human waste and solid waste as well as stormwater drainage management. The processes involved in waste-water treatment include physical processes such as settlement or flotation and biological processes such as aerated lagoons , activated sludge , or bio-films in trickling filters. Other physical methods such as filtration through sieves may be used in specialised circumstances such as de-watering waste-water sludge. To be effective, sewage must be conveyed to a treatment plant by appropriate pipes and infrastructure , and the process itself must be subject to regulation and controls.
This chapter elucidates the technologies of biological and chemical wastewater treatment processes. The presented biological wastewater treatment processes include: 1 bioremediation of wastewater that includes aerobic treatment oxidation ponds, aeration lagoons, aerobic bioreactors, activated sludge, percolating or trickling filters, biological filters, rotating biological contactors, biological removal of nutrients and anaerobic treatment anaerobic bioreactors, anaerobic lagoons ; 2 phytoremediation of wastewater that includes constructed wetlands, rhizofiltration, rhizodegradation, phytodegradation, phytoaccumulation, phytotransformation, and hyperaccumulators; and 3 mycoremediation of wastewater. Additionally, this chapter elucidates and illustrates the wastewater treatment plants in terms of plant sizing, plant layout, plant design, and plant location.
Wastewater treatment uses chemical and physical processes to solve specific problems. Screens, strainers and membrane technology, for instance, are employed to separate solids. Processes such as precipitation and nanofiltration remove heavy metals from wastewaters.
Wastewater has a lot of impact on the natural world and it is important to treat it effectively.Reply