File Name: difference between icmp and igmp .zip
Internet layer. Thanks, Helder i was a bit confused on this one i will set that to my mind. ICMP is a Layer3 protocol.
This tutorial explains types of network protocols and their functions in details. Understanding these basic network protocols with functions will help you in managing network effectively.
Learn how the most common types of network protocols works in computer network. The main difference between the two protocols is that TCP uses a connection-oriented transport, while UDP uses a connectionless type of communication. When the TCP protocol is used, a special connection is opened up between two network devices, and the channel remains open to transmit data until it is closed. On the other hand, a UDP transmission does not make a proper connection and merely broadcasts its data to the specified network address without any verification of receipt.
For certain types of applications and services, a TCP connection makes more sense, while other types are more efficiently provided by UDP communication. The advantage of TCP is that the transmission is much more reliable because it uses acknowledgement packets to ensure delivery.
The advantage of UDP is that there is no connection, so it is much faster without all the checks and acknowledgements going on, but is also less reliable. It would be very difficult for someone to have to memorize the different IP addresses for the hosts they want to connect to on the network.
A domain name uses words rather than numbers to identify Internet hosts. You would enter. You could use A DNS server translates these addresses. When the browser receives the address, it connects to the Web site. NAT translates one IP address to another. This can be a source address or a destination address. Two basic implementations of NAT can be used: static and dynamic. With static NAT, a manual translation is performed by an address translation device, translating one IP address to a different one.
Typically, static NAT is used to translate destination IP addresses in packets as they come into your network, but you can translate source addresses also. With static address translation, you need to build the translations manually. If you have devices, you need to create static entries in the address translation table, which is a lot of work. Typically, static translation is done for inside resources that outside people want to access.
When inside users access outside resources, dynamic translation is typically used. ICS provides networked computers with the capability to share a single connection to the Internet.
This is called name resolution. WINS supports network client and server computers running Windows. WINS uses a distributed database that is automatically updated with the names of computers currently available and the IP address assigned to each one. DNS is an alternative for name resolution suitable for network computers with fixed IP addresses.
SNMP uses small utility programs called agents to monitor behavior and traffic on the network, in order to gather statistical data. These agents can be loaded onto managed devices such as hubs, NIC's, servers, routers, and bridges. The gathered data is stored in a MIB management information base. To collect the information in a usable form, a management program console polls these agents and downloads the information from their MIB's, which then can be displayed as graphs, charts and sent to a database program to be analyzed.
Network File System NFS is a distributed file system that allows users to access files and directories located on remote computers and treat those files and directories as if they were local. Zero Configuration Networking is a set of techniques that automatically create a usable IP network without configuration or special servers.
This allows unknowledgeable users to connect computers, networked printers, and other items together and expect them to work automatically. Without Zeroconf or something similar, a knowledgeable user must either set up special servers, like DHCP and DNS, or set up each computer's network settings manualy. Zeroconf currently solves three problems :. A file-sharing protocol designed to allow networked computers to transparently access files that reside on remote systems over a variety of networks.
The SMB protocol defines a series of commands that pass information between computers. SMB uses four message types: session control, file, printer, and message. It is mainly used by Microsoft Windows equipped computers. SMB works through a client-server approach, where a client makes specific requests and the server responds accordingly. One section of the SMB protocol is specifically for filesystem access, such that clients may make requests to a file server.
The SMB protocol was optimised for local subnet usage, but one could use it to access different subnets across the Internet on which MS Windows file-and-print sharing exploits usually focus. Client computers may have their own hard disks, which are not publicly shared, yet also want access to the shared file systems and printers on the server, and it is for this primary purpose that SMB is best known and most heavily used.
The file sharing protocol used in an AppleTalk network. In order for non-Apple networks to access data in an AppleShare server, their protocols must translate into the AFP language. AFP versions 3. The AFP 2. The LPR component initiates commands such as "print waiting jobs," "receive job," and "send queue state," and the LPD component in the print server responds to them. In networking, these are typically used for backup of primary circuits and for temporary boosts of bandwidth.
These circuits are common when a variety of services, such as voice, video, and data, must traverse the connection and you are concerned about delay issues with the traffic and guaranteed bandwidth. Their advantage over dedicated circuits is that a single device can connect to multiple devices on the same interface. The downside of these services is that they are not available at all locations, they are difficult to set up and troubleshoot, and the equipment is expensive when compared to equipment used for dedicated circuits.
Packet-switched services are similar to cell-switched services. Whereas cell-switched services switch fixed-length packets called cells, packet-switched services switch variable-length packets. This feature makes them better suited for data services, but they can nonetheless provide some of the QoS features that cell-switched services provide. Packet switching offers more efficient use of a telecommunication provider's network bandwidth.
With packet switching, the switching mechanisms on the network route each data packet from switch to switch individually over the network using the best-available path. Any one physical link in a packet-switched network can carry packets from many different senders and for many different destinations. Where as in a circuit switched connection, the bandwidth is dedicated to one sender and receiver only. Integrated Services Digital Network adapters can be used to send voice, data, audio, or video over standard telephone cabling.
ISDN adapters must be connected directly to a digital telephone network. Like standard modems, ISDN adapters are available both as internal devices that connect directly to a computer's expansion bus and as external devices that connect to one of a computer's serial or parallel ports. ISDN can provide data throughput rates from 56 Kbps to 1.
In other cases, an NT device separate from the adapter or router must be implemented. Fiber Distributed Data Interface, shares many of the same features as token ring, such as a token passing, and the continuous network loop configuration. But FDDI has better fault tolerance because of its use of a dual, counter-rotating ring that enables the ring to reconfigure itself in case of a link failure.
Each device in the ring attaches to the adjacent device using a two stranded fiber optic cable. Data travels in one direction on the outer strand and in the other direction on the inner strand. When all devices attached to the dual ring are functioning properly, data travels on only one ring. FDDI transmits data on the second ring only in the event of a link failure. T1 lines are widely used for private networks as well as interconnections between an organizations LAN and the telco.
A T1 line uses two pairs of wire one to transmit, and one to receive. The standard T1 frame is bits long, which holds 24 8-bit voice samples and one synchronization bit with 8, frames transmitted per second. T1 is not restricted to digital voice or to 64 Kbps data streams. Channels may be combined and the total 1. A T3 line is a super high-speed connection capable of transmitting data at a rate of 45 Mbps.
A T3 line represents a bandwidth equal to about regular voice-grade telephone lines, which is wide enough to transmit real time video, and very large databases over a busy network. A T3 line is typically installed as a major networking artery for large corporations, universities with high-volume network traffic and for the backbones of the major Internet service providers.
Optical Carrier, designations are used to specify the speed of fiber optic networks that conforms to the SONET standard.
It provides error detection and correction, as well as flow control, at both the data link layer by LAPB and the network layer by X. Because of its overhead, X. If you have a synchronous digital connection, another protocol, such as Frame Relay or ATM, is much more efficient.
This protocol relies on an elaborate worldwide network of packet-forwarding nodes that can participate in delivering an X. Some of these varieties are asymmetric with different data rates in the downstream and upstream directions. Others are symmetric. A high-bandwidth digital transmission technology that uses existing phone lines and also allows voice transmissions over the same lines.
Most of the traffic is transmitted downstream to the user, generally at rates of Kbps to about 6 Mbps. Cable modems use a broadband connection to the Internet through cable television infrastructure. These modems use frequencies that do not interfere with television transmission. The word modem comes from Modulate and Demodulate. Because standard telephone lines use analog signals, and computers digital signals, a sending modem must modulate its digital signals into analog signals.
The computers modem on the receiving end must then demodulate the analog signals into digital signals. Modems can be external, connected to the computers serial port by an RS cable or internal in one of the computers expansion slots.
Modems connect to the phone line using standard telephone RJ connectors. A wireless network consists of wireless NICs and access points.
Access points act as wireless hubs to link multiple wireless NICs into a single subnet.
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ICMP is abbreviation for Internet Control Management Protocol and IGMP is abbreviation for Internet Group Management Protocol. While ICMP uses unicast Routing for error detection and notification messages, IGMP is used by hosts to join and leave Multicast groups.
The cast term here signifies some data stream of packets is being transmitted to the recipient s from client s side over the communication channel that helps them to communicate. This type of information transfer is useful when there is a participation of single sender and single recipient. So, in short, you can term it as a one-to-one transmission. For example, a device having IP address
It helps you to create a virtual network when multiple computer networks are connected. It is specifically designed as a model to offer highly reliable and end-to-end byte stream over an unreliable internetwork. In this tutorial, you will learn: What is TCP? What is UDP? How TCP work?
Multicast communication can have single or multiple senders and receivers and thus, IGMP can be used in streaming videos, gaming or web conferencing tools. Like other network protocols, IGMP is used on network layer. These versions are backward compatible. Following are the versions of IGMP:.
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To address these deficiencies, a special protocol called the Internet Control Message Protocol ICMP is used in conjunction with IP to provide diagnostics and control information related to the configuration of the IP protocol layer and the disposition of IP packets.Reply
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This tutorial explains types of network protocols and their functions in details.Reply
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