File Name: chemical compounds and their common names .zip
The common names and formulas of chemical compounds is a very relevant area of study for every competitive exam including SSC and it is important for the aspirants to develop a fair idea on this subject. In this article, we are discussing the following topics. A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
In many fields, precise terminology is adequate to describe specific concepts or entities; however, in chemistry, elaborate chemical nomenclature often is not an efficient way to communicate about complex molecules. As a result, chemists have developed shorthand notations to represent molecular information, such as two-dimensional skeletal line drawings for chemical structures and specific arrow notations to illustrate chemical reactivity.
These chemical renderings remain the most common 'language' whereby scientists 'speak chemistry' at the blackboard and in the scientific literature. Chemical biology relies heavily on these structural formulas to describe the relationships between chemical and biological systems, but the field faces the challenge of translating the meanings of these chemical symbols across traditional disciplinary boundaries.
To foster the exchange of information by scientists working at the interface of chemistry and biology, the Nature Chemical Biology team has developed new ways to enhance the accessibility and utility of the chemical compound information in papers published in the journal.
Most published chemical content is traditionally contained in the schemes, figures and tables of scientific papers. Authors also use abbreviations, acronyms or numbering schemes to identify specific molecules. Though these shorthand notations simplify the presentation of chemical information, they tend to make chemical papers less accessible to the general reader.
This is a concern for chemical biology articles, which are intended to attract an interdisciplinary audience. Moreover, since the advent of the Internet, the way by which scientists acquire scientific information has changed. Though some scientists continue to read journal articles in print, most turn to the online HTML and PDF versions of published manuscripts.
This expanded use of electronic resources offers an excellent opportunity to make chemical information more accessible and user-friendly to readers of scientific papers.
In all original research papers, compounds that are relevant to the background or results of the paper are assigned a bolded, Arabic numeral that serves as a unique identifier for the compound. To provide readers with rapid access to all of the chemical compounds discussed in an article, we feature a Compound Data Index page, which is accessible from the Compound Data page, the table of contents entry for the paper, and the navigation tools on the right side of the Nature Chemical Biology website.
Taken together, these features highlight chemical information in a format that is not available in more traditional presentations of chemical content. Though line drawings offer a useful way to represent molecular structures, chemical compounds exist as three-dimensional objects with distinct conformational preferences.
To highlight these properties, Nature Chemical Biology has launched new online functionality that permits the three-dimensional visualization of the numbered compounds in each article. Each compound's 3D page is accessible through the Compound Data pages and provides a three-dimensional rendering of the molecule as an energy-minimized MM2 conformer.
Users are able to rotate, zoom and manipulate the compound in three dimensions on the journal's webpage. Although the technology is in its infancy, we hope that it will encourage readers to consider the importance of three-dimensional molecular structure in biology. By adopting a standard chemical style at the journal, we hope to enhance the clarity of how we communicate chemical information throughout our pages. We view this process as a partnership between authors and editors.
Authors ensure that the chemical compound information within their papers is complete, scientifically accurate and appropriately formatted. To support the online chemical content, authors also contribute two files with their final manuscript that the editorial team uses to deposit the study's chemical information into PubChem, generate the compound information pages and create the three-dimensional renderings of the chemical compounds in the online version of each paper: i a formatted ChemDraw file that contains the structure of each numbered chemical compound grouped with its corresponding number, and ii a tab-delimited text or spreadsheet file in which each compound number is associated with its IUPAC or systematic name.
Although authors need to invest additional time in creating these files, their efforts greatly enhance the content of their published papers.
We believe that the chemical content of Nature Chemical Biology papers shows how online resources can be used to enhance the accessibility and utility of chemical content in scientific papers. We seek your evaluation of what we have done so far. We would also like to hear your 'wish list' for new chemical or biological functionality that will foster communication and collaboration between researchers at the interface of chemistry and biology.
Reprints and Permissions. A new look for chemical information. Nat Chem Biol 3, Download citation. Issue Date : June Nature Chemical Biology Advanced search. Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily. Skip to main content Thank you for visiting nature. Download PDF. Rights and permissions Reprints and Permissions.
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Home About My account Contact Us. Generally questions from the topic Common Names and Formulas of Important Chemical Compounds are asked in every competitive exam. Here some chemical compounds that common in household. List the common names together with the chemical names and formulae of 20 household chemicals. Many household product is made or composed by some chemical compounds.
The atoms in all substances that contain multiple atoms are held together by electrostatic interactions—interactions between electrically charged particles such as protons and electrons. Electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged species positive and negative results in a force that causes them to move toward each other, like the attraction between opposite poles of two magnets. In contrast, electrostatic repulsion between two species with the same charge either both positive or both negative results in a force that causes them to repel each other, as do the same poles of two magnets. Atoms form chemical compounds when the attractive electrostatic interactions between them are stronger than the repulsive interactions. Collectively, the attractive interactions between atoms are called chemical bonds.
Chemical compounds may be classified according to several different criteria. One common method is based on the specific elements present. For example, oxides contain one or more oxygen atoms, hydrides contain one or more hydrogen atoms, and halides contain one or more halogen Group 17 atoms. Organic compounds are characterized as those compounds with a backbone of carbon atoms, and all the remaining compounds are classified as inorganic.
The empirical and molecular formulas discussed in the preceding section are precise and informative, but they have some disadvantages. First, they are inconvenient for routine verbal communication. In such cases, it is necessary for the compounds to have different names that distinguish among the possible arrangements. Many compounds, particularly those that have been known for a relatively long time, have more than one name: a common name sometimes several , and a systematic name, which is the name assigned by adhering to specific rules. Like the names of most elements, the common names of chemical compounds generally have historical origins, although they often appear to be unrelated to the compounds of interest.
A chemical substance is a form of matter having constant chemical composition and characteristic properties. Chemical elements may or may not be included in the definition, depending on expert viewpoint. Chemical substances are often called 'pure' to set them apart from mixtures. A common example of a chemical substance is pure water ; it has the same properties and the same ratio of hydrogen to oxygen whether it is isolated from a river or made in a laboratory. Other chemical substances commonly encountered in pure form are diamond carbon , gold , table salt sodium chloride and refined sugar sucrose. However, in practice, no substance is entirely pure, and chemical purity is specified according to the intended use of the chemical. Chemical substances exist as solids , liquids , gases , or plasma , and may change between these phases of matter with changes in temperature or pressure and time.
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