structure and function of nervous system pdf

Structure and function of nervous system pdf

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StatPearls [Internet].

The neuron and nervous system

Structure and Function

Nervous tissue , also called neural tissue , is the main tissue component of the nervous system. The nervous system regulates and controls bodily functions and activity and consists of two parts: the central nervous system CNS comprising the brain and spinal cord , and the peripheral nervous system PNS comprising the branching peripheral nerves. It is composed of neurons , also known as nerve cells, which receive and transmit impulses, and neuroglia , also known as glial cells or glia, which assist the propagation of the nerve impulse as well as provide nutrients to the neurons. Nervous tissue is made up of different types of neurons, all have an axon. An axon is the long stem-like part of the cell that sends action potentials to the next cell.

StatPearls [Internet].

That suggests it is made of two organs—and you may not even think of the spinal cord as an organ—but the nervous system is a very complex structure. Within the brain, many different and separate regions are responsible for many different and separate functions. It is as if the nervous system is composed of many organs that all look similar and can only be differentiated using tools such as the microscope or electrophysiology. In comparison, it is easy to see that the stomach is different than the esophagus or the liver, so you can imagine the digestive system as a collection of specific organs. Figure 1. Central and Peripheral Nervous System The structures of the PNS are referred to as ganglia and nerves, which can be seen as distinct structures.

The nervous system consists of the brain, spinal cord, sensory organs, and all of the nerves that connect these organs with the rest of the body. Together, these organs are responsible for the control of the body and communication among its parts. The brain and spinal cord form the control center known as the central nervous system CNS , where information is evaluated and decisions made. The sensory nerves and sense organs of the peripheral nervous system PNS monitor conditions inside and outside of the body and send this information to the CNS. Efferent nerves in the PNS carry signals from the control center to the muscles, glands, and organs to regulate their functions. The majority of the nervous system is tissue made up of two classes of cells: neurons and neuroglia. Neurons, also known as nerve cells, communicate within the body by transmitting electrochemical signals.

The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. This article gives a brief overview of the central nervous system CNS. We will look at the types of cells involved, different regions within the brain, spinal circuitry, and how the CNS can be affected by disease and injury. Here are some key points about the central nervous system. More detail and supporting information is in the main article. The brain is protected by the skull the cranial cavity and the spinal cord travels from the back of the brain, down the center of the spine, stopping in the lumbar region of the lower back.

The neuron and nervous system

The nervous system transmits signals between the brain and the rest of the body, including internal organs. The human brain contains about billion neurons. Bundles of axons, called nerves, are found throughout the body. Axons and dendrites allow neurons to communicate, even across long distances. Different types of neurons control or perform different activities. For instance, motor neurons transmit messages from the brain to the muscles to generate movement. Sensory neurons detect light, sound, odor, taste, pressure, and heat and send messages about those things to the brain.

The central nervous system CNS is the part of the nervous system consisting primarily of the brain and spinal cord. The CNS is so named because the brain integrates the received information and coordinates and influences the activity of all parts of the bodies of bilaterally symmetric animals —i. It consists of a large nerve running from the anterior to the posterior, with the anterior end is enlarged into the brain. Not all animals with a central nervous system have a brain, although the large majority do. The rest of this article exclusively discusses the vertebrate central nervous system, which is radically distinct from all other animals. In vertebrates the brain and spinal cord are both enclosed in the meninges.

Nervous system , organized group of cells specialized for the conduction of electrochemical stimuli from sensory receptors through a network to the site at which a response occurs. All living organisms are able to detect changes within themselves and in their environments. Changes in the external environment include those of light , temperature , sound , motion, and odour , while changes in the internal environment include those in the position of the head and limbs as well as in the internal organs. Once detected, these internal and external changes must be analyzed and acted upon in order to survive. As life on Earth evolved and the environment became more complex, the survival of organisms depended upon how well they could respond to changes in their surroundings. One factor necessary for survival was a speedy reaction or response. Since communication from one cell to another by chemical means was too slow to be adequate for survival, a system evolved that allowed for faster reaction.

Structure and Function

Fred H. He studies the unanticipated plasticity and complexity represented in the brain. Any man could, if he were so inclined, be the sculptor of his own brain. Neuroscience is the scientific study of the nervous system the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nervous system and its functions.

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NCBI Bookshelf. Parker E. Ludwig ; Vamsi Reddy ; Matthew Varacallo.


  • Richard P. 11.06.2021 at 06:00

    John deere x485 service manual pdf thanks for the memories cecilia ahern pdf

  • Amy O. 12.06.2021 at 05:57

    tional units of the nervous system. Neurons transmit messages to and from the brain. They consist of a cell body and processes (nerve. StruCture aNd FuNCtioN​.


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