advantages and disadvantages of internet censorship pdf

Advantages and disadvantages of internet censorship pdf

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Internet censorship

Advantages and disadvantages of internet essay pt3

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End of year reflection essay

Internet censorship is the control or suppression of what can be accessed, published, or viewed on the Internet enacted by regulators, or on their own initiative. Individuals and organizations may engage in self-censorship for moral, religious, or business reasons, to conform to societal norms, due to intimidation, or out of fear of legal or other consequences. The extent of Internet censorship varies on a country-to-country basis. While some democratic countries have moderate Internet censorship, other countries go as far as to limit the access of information such as news and suppress discussion among citizens.

Internet censorship

This is an updated version, as of December Restrictions to Internet access are on the rise globally, [1] with frequent news of government-mandated disruptions of Internet access. The United Nations considers cutting off users from Internet access, regardless of the justification provided, including on the grounds of violating intellectual property rights law, to be disproportionate and thus a violation of Article 19, Paragraph 3, of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.

It also calls upon all States to ensure that Internet access is maintained at all times, including during times of political unrest. An Internet shutdown is an intentional disruption of Internet-based communications, rendering them inaccessible or effectively unavailable, for a specific population, location, or mode of access, often to exert control over the flow of information.

Internet shutdowns started gaining global attention during the Egypt uprising in , when authorities shut down the Internet for nearly a week to disrupt communications of protestors. While the phenomenon is global, current trends indicate that India and Pakistan lead with the most documented shutdowns, followed by the MENA and Sub-Saharan regions. Access Now notes that governments implementing Internet shutdowns historically use similar justifications for ordering shutdowns, but that these rarely match what observers can conclude is the true motivation.

Against this backdrop, a growing number of governments, businesses, civil society organizations, technical community bodies, and individuals have been speaking up against Internet shutdowns.

Coalition, [9] for instance, includes over organizations from nearly countries. Internet shutdowns have far-reaching technical, economic, and human rights impacts. Policymakers need to consider these costs alongside security imperatives. Being part of an interconnected network means having responsibility towards the network as a whole, and shutdowns hold the potential to generate systemic risks.

Intentional physical damage to infrastructure, such as cutting fiber optic cables, is probably the most extreme method of implementing an Internet shutdown. For a number of countries, physical damage to telecommunications cables is particularly problematic because they are transit states.

Several of the lines come ashore at the Suez Canal and run overland through Cairo before entering the Mediterranean at Abu Talat or Alexandria. Figure 1: Infrapedia map showing multiple telecommunications cables crossing Egypt Source: Infrapedia. While an Internet shutdown in the hosting country is focused on disrupting access in that country, it ultimately blocks access to these services and applications from the rest of the global Internet, cutting off critical inter-personal communication, financial transactions, and enterprise workflows.

Wide-scale Internet shutdowns can also have a detrimental impact on the domain name system DNS. In some situations, shutdowns are implemented asymmetrically, where traffic from the global Internet is prevented from reaching the country suffering the shutdown, but where traffic from the country is still able to reach the global Internet. In that case, a surge in DNS requests occurs as systems in the impacted country repeatedly try in vain to resolve hostnames — responses are sent by the DNS servers, but they are never received by the originating systems, so these systems keep resending the requests.

In addition, some users have configured backup DNS resolvers outside of their local service providers. If these local resolvers fail to complete the requested lookups, clients will failover to these backup resolvers. Internet routing policy is based on relationships between Autonomous Systems ASes , and the relationships can be customer-provider and peer-peer.

Finally, if Internet shutdowns are used as a blunt-force means of blocking access locally to a specific service or application, access to other unrelated services may also be impacted as collateral damage. For example, shutting down Internet access to block access to social media services will also limit local access to Internet-based ride sharing and taxi hailing applications, likely creating a major disruption for transportation services.

Internet shutdowns affect economies in multiple ways, upsetting productivity and generating monetary losses in time-sensitive transactions. The impacts of a temporary shutdown of the Internet grow larger as a country develops and as a more mature online ecosystem emerges.

Although these studies have not been updated in the last several years, figures associated with more recent shutdowns are readily available:. Beyond macro-economic impacts, shutdowns also affect businesses and SMEs in very tangible ways.

The shutdowns limited business-customer communication, and prevented customers from accessing booking platforms, leading to reputational damage for hotels. Additionally, the lack of Internet connectivity resulting from shutdowns impacts the ability of small businesses to do outreach, and hampers tourist ability to discover local services and businesses through apps and online platforms.

Notwithstanding the impact on the entire economy, businesses that are heavily dependent on electronic transactions are particularly exposed to very serious consequences. For example, e-payments are becoming increasingly common not only in the developed world but in many developing countries.

Census to estimate the economic impact of an Internet shutdown. People routinely depend on the Internet to stay in touch with family and friends, create local communities of interest, report public information, hold institutions accountable, and access and share knowledge.

To that end, it can be argued that Internet access cannot be distinguished from the exercise of freedom of expression and opinion and the right to peaceful assembly. As stated by the UN Human Rights Council in and reaffirmed since, people should enjoy the same protections of these rights whether in online or offline contexts. As such, Internet shutdowns, in particular those that disable all means of communications, should be considered as potential Human Rights violations.

While rights such as free speech are not absolute and can be restricted on exceptional grounds — such as national security and public order — they also need to follow the three-part test laid out in Article 19 3 of the ICCPR, including meeting proportionality and necessity criteria. Challenges related to the use of Internet shutdowns by governments include:.

Governments have legitimate concerns and duties to safeguard public order and national security for their citizens. Yet, any measure that restricts free expression or association in order to advance such objectives must remain exceptional, be grounded in law, and be strictly necessary and proportional to achieve a legitimate aim.

During shutdowns, many citizens feel that their fundamental rights are being violated, nurturing discontent and a feeling of insecurity that can generate negative consequences for the stability of the country. Governments are faced with the challenge of applying their national legislation in an online environment marked by cross-border content platforms. In the context of a globally connected and open Internet, removing content considered problematic in a specific jurisdiction is not as simple as asking a local provider to remove that content.

Unless they are able to get effective collaboration from such platforms, this cross-border complexity may lead some governments to instead opt for the more heavy-handed approach of shutting down the ability to access to these platforms entirely.

Although Internet shutdowns wielded as a blunt tool continue to attract global attention, increasingly sophisticated content filtering techniques will likely become more ubiquitous in the future. Intelligent algorithms powered by machine learning are already fueling real-time censorship tools in some parts of the world [34] and such a scenario would make censorship less visible and more difficult to detect and react to because it is being done invisibly upstream of the user.

Such tools, and associated restrictive policies, are already being exported by China to dozens of countries worldwide. Because of the role of the Internet in advancing public policy goals including education, health, and economic development, in , countries of the U. The U. There is currently no evidence of the effectiveness of shutdowns to solve the issues they are meant to address, in particular when they are meant to restore public order.

In fact, research [38] has found that information blackouts resulting from Internet shutdowns can actually result in increased violence, with violent tactics that are less reliant on effective communication and coordination being substituted for non-violent protests that rely on the Internet for organization.

There are also multiple accounts of collateral damages provoked by these measures, including impacts to civil, political, economic, social, and cultural rights.

In addition, Internet shutdowns tend to attract international attention and create pressure on countries that undertake them. Freedom of expression should be the norm, and any limitation to this right the exception. Grounded in the principles of international human rights law, proportionality and necessity assessments should guide the actions of any policymaker entertaining the use of Internet shutdowns as a policy tool.

Necessity means that any restriction of Internet access must be limited to measures which are strictly and demonstrably necessary to achieve a legitimate aim. It should be demonstrated that no other measure would achieve similar effects with more efficiency and less collateral damages. Necessity also implies an assessment of the proportionality of the measures.

Any restriction of Internet access must also be proportional. There are many costs to be considered as a result of Internet shutdowns, including economic, technical, and social, and governments need to consider these short and long-term effects.

In most cases, even short-duration shutdowns may have long-term implications extending long after connectivity returns. The loss of trust and confidence in the Internet as a reliable platform of opportunities can result in hard to quantify negative impacts, in particular on younger generations that see connectivity as a path to their future. Internet shutdowns are, unequivocally, harmful to the global Internet and to local communities.

Governments should be aware that Internet shutdowns affect many sectors of society, and it is imperative to engage in an open exchange with them with an aim of seeking alternative ways of addressing legitimate issues, rather than turning to shutdowns as a policy tool. Human Rights Resource Center. Internet Society Position on Internet Shutdowns. June NetBlocks and the Internet Society launch tool to calculate the cost of Internet censorship worldwide.

December November May Internet Shutdowns cannot be a solution to political challenges in Chad. April March September Internet Society statement on Internet blocking measures in Catalonia, Spain. Article August Access Now. Freedom House. October Global Network Initiative. The economic impact of disruptions to Internet connectivity. Deloitte, Facebook.

Internet shutdowns: The risks and opportunities for technology sector investors. Joint letters on keeping the internet open and secure multiple countries. Joint statement on the internet shutdown in Rakhine and Chin States by digital rights organisations and other civil society organisations. Statement on Intentional Internet Shutdowns.

African School on Internet Governance. July The promotion, protection and enjoyment of human rights on the Internet.

UN Human Rights Council. Service Restriction Orders. KeepItOn Campaign. As such, numbers provided need to be understood as providing an order of magnitude, with these limits in mind. Policy Brief: Internet Shutdowns.

Advantages and disadvantages of internet essay pt3

Internet censorship is a legal process which allows governments, institutions, and even some private organizations the ability to restrict access to specific online content items or websites from individuals. This process can take many forms. It may take place when a law is issued by the government, through societal regulation, or even when someone purposely edits content in a way that prevents others from accessing it. One common form of Internet censorship and involves ISP objections. Websites like the pirate Bay are often blocked by Internet service providers because of the content that users find. Should we keep online communities in a structure that makes the majority of people comfortable?

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Internet censorship is the suppression or control of what an individual may access, view, or publish while they are online. Some may choose a self-censorship for business, moral, or religious reasons. It can even be an activity which allows households to conform to specific societal norms. There are also times when Internet censorship occurs for legal reasons. Several countries have their ISPs restrict access to torrent sites like The Pirate Bay because of the high likelihood of a copyright violation occurring. The reasons for Internet censorship are varied, but they all tend to have same outcome in mind. By blocking specific content, an oversight entity seeks to create a positive experience based on their definition of what is wholesome instead of allowing individuals to make that decision on their own.


List of the Advantages of Internet Censorship. It provides another layer of security against identity theft. Censorship can identify specific illegal activities. It adds a measure of security to our daily lives. Internet censorship can reduce the levels of false data found online.


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But that idealized vision of the global internet is increasingly clashing with reality: one where many countries exert control over internet architecture within their borders. In the U. While too complex an issue to capture everything in one article, there are a few key points that should center this debate in the United States. Because contrary to popular belief, many democracies already have some regulations on internet content.

PDF version [ KB ]. Executive summary Introduction. The censorship context Origins of the digital community. A clean feed Sorting out the filter Could accurate filtering be achieved?

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Policy Brief: Internet Shutdowns

Internet censorship is defined as the suppression or control of what a person can view, publish, or access when they are online under their own initiative. People and organizations can engage in the practice of self-censorship at any time. There are religious, moral, and even commercial reasons why such a practice would take place.

End of year reflection essay

 Вы уверены, что на руке у него не было перстня. Офицер удивленно на него посмотрел. - Перстня. - Да. Взгляните. Офицер подошел к столу.

Я же объяснил тебе, что он зашифрован. Сьюзан, в свою очередь, удивил ответ шефа. - Но ведь у нас есть ТРАНСТЕКСТ, почему бы его не расшифровать? - Но, увидев выражение лица Стратмора, она поняла, что правила игры изменились.  - О Боже, - проговорила Сьюзан, сообразив, в чем дело, - Цифровая крепость зашифровала самое. Стратмор невесело улыбнулся: - Наконец ты поняла.

Однажды в компьютере случился сбой, причину которого никто не мог установить. После многочасовых поисков ее обнаружил младший лаборант.

Advantages and disadvantages of internet essay pt3

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 - Если Северная Дакота заподозрит, что мы его ищем, он начнет паниковать и исчезнет вместе с паролем, так что никакая штурмовая группа до него не доберется. - Все произойдет, как булавочный укол, - заверила его Сьюзан.  - В тот момент, когда обнаружится его счет, маяк самоуничтожится. Танкадо даже не узнает, что мы побывали у него в гостях. - Спасибо, - устало кивнул коммандер.

3 comments

  • Exdyretchi 04.06.2021 at 05:29

    between Internet Censorship and Crime Rate, and we decided to use Internet censorship, its advantages and disadvantages. human rights hondapeople.org

    Reply
  • Jason A. 06.06.2021 at 22:15

    Following our previous articles about increasing political censorship of the Internet in Malaysia, things have quickly gone from bad to worse.

    Reply
  • Ingeberg C. 09.06.2021 at 19:39

    This is an updated version, as of December

    Reply

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