thailand education system and policy handbook pdf

Thailand education system and policy handbook pdf

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This chapter aims at investigating to what extent the local content provision has changed the Thai educational system and has contributed to the reinforcement of Thai identity and culture. The purpose of the research was to see and examine how the local curriculum has been developed so far. Through questionnaires submitted in schools, it was possible to present the actors involved in the creation and the implementation of the local curriculum, but also the content of the local curriculum and its perspectives.

Many challenges were pinpointed, questioning in essence the validity of the local content provision. The system that was then set up differed greatly from traditional education, centred on temple schools, family or apprenticeship within the community.

In opposition, the main purpose of modern education was, at the beginning, to specifically train bureaucrats for the newly formed national administration Mead , but its scope has since been broadened. Nowadays, Thailand has nearly achieved universal primary education and high literacy rates. Opportunities to get access to secondary and higher education have also consequently increased.

The threat of an education not fit for the needs of the community 14 and not preserving traditional knowledge has been brought to the fore, especially by localists. In the s, the movement gained more visibility by linking its thinking to the sufficiency discourse Setthakit Phophiang , supported by the King, and to the notion of self-reliance Phueng ton eng , supported by Buddhist tenants. The localist discourse has indeed been articulated around the idea that a community should be sufficient, use and develop its own resources, either material, spiritual or cultural.

How has it impacted on the safeguarding and development of Thai wisdom, term encompassing both culture and identity? If the idea has been well-accepted by the educational personnel and the different community stakeholders, it seems that the implementation has so far been chaotic, due to a lack of clarity, sufficient budget and organization support.

This is what this chapter has attempted to study, supported by field work mainly conducted in Northern and Northeastern Thailand. As part of their study, schools, located in poor areas of Northern and North-Eastern Thailand, were interviewed. We had the opportunity to access the completed questionnaires and to analyse answers referring to the implementation of the local content provision, both in a qualitative and quantitative way Further details are presented in Point 1.

In that respect, students in Bachelor of Education in higher education institutions in the North of Thailand were interviewed, together with lecturers involved in the B. The purpose was essentially to have a feedback from the field without pretending to have a representative sample of all schools.

The sample presented below is therefore not at all representative of the Thai educational system structure. Breakdown of interviewed schools per region, province, level of education, number of teachers and directors interviewed.

Source: Baron-Gutty and Chupradit Breakdown of interviewed teachers per level of education taught and age. Breakdown of interviewed teachers at secondary level per field taught and age. We focused on them only. Interviews had been done in Thai by a team of interviewers that varied from one site to another, and this work had been carried out with the collaboration of Rajabhat universities 17 in their related geographical area.

Education was presented as a significant actor in transmitting national heritage and therefore actions were launched in schools to help the nation reinforce its cultural basis. The ninth field is nutrition. Chatthip Nartsupha argued that village or community existed before capitalism and were the core of Thai political and economic structures. It is therefore time to come back to the roots of Thai organization, away from the nation-state and capitalist structures.

To develop the local curriculum, which measures were launched concretely in , it soon appeared necessary and that was actually the point of the whole process for schools to ask people from the neighbourhood to come to school and share their knowledge with pupils. But behind this apparent unanimity, there are some cracks: Some teachers confessed local wisdom was only integrated marginally, and it was difficult to do it.

So behind the official blank discourse, what is going on? Has education being given back to communities? Has the local content provision changed anything in the Thai educational systems? The answers we gathered are articulated around two themes: The actors of the local curriculum and the contents of this curriculum.

Of course educational policies designed by the Ministry have an influence on it, but on a day-to-day basis, these core actors are the roots of education. One of the aims of the local curriculum was to integrate people from the community Chumchon into this nucleus, to avoid the dichotomy between inhabitants and their local school. The school directors mentioned that mostly teachers, school committee and parents took part in the development of the local curriculum. All this information shows us that despite what was expected from the regulations, the key actors in constructing the local curriculum are not community stakeholders, but teachers.

It could show that older, and therefore, more experienced teachers think it is not applicable or not relevant, but also that they are against innovation and do not want to change the way they have taught for many years.

Whatever the real reason behind it, it shows that the training of new teachers is the key to the appropriate and efficient application of the local curriculum in Thai basic education. We first interviewed some students involved in this type of programmes. Those who knew about it said they would like to know more on how to apply it when they are teaching.

We found two. It is a second-year mandatory course that welcomes guest speakers from the surrounding area and mainly focuses on the specificities and characteristics of major festivals or regional historical features. Only few guidelines were given and most of them were fuzzy in nature. Despite all of this, a kind of local curriculum has been designed and we will in the following section investigate who has been in charge of its teaching and how this has been structured.

Once again, the teachers have been designated as the main actors with regards to the delivering of the local curriculum. The chart also shows the importance given to the newly created Teachers of Local Wisdom. This can be explained by the fact that most teachers do not work in the area they are from and therefore need support from the outside to integrate local wisdom and resources.

In that respect, they turn to the teacher of local wisdom. It has proved difficult for schools to attract people from the outside to be involved in the local curriculum. The school often does not go any further in its development of locally related courses and thinks that the local curriculum should be devoted to the sole teaching from the Teacher of Local Wisdom.

Emphasis is consequently put on certain fields of local wisdom, and others are completely neglected. The first option might be seen as a way of diluting local wisdom in all courses, therefore not specifically teaching it or taking it into account.

The second option refers to the teaching by the Teacher of Local Wisdom. During that day, teachers of local wisdom are invited together with the parents, people from the neighbourhood, and monks from the temple.

It consists of a local wisdom show with pupils taking part in activities such as traditional dancing, sculpture, drawings, or martial arts. This kind of activity, together with field trips organized during the year, allow the school to comply with the local curriculum regulations and they are acknowledged as such in the school assessment report, handed in every year, as part of the quality assurance scheme set up in every educational institution.

Little support from the Ministry of Education through its Educational Service Areas or from local bodies education departments of the Local Administrative Organizations 21 has been received, therefore leaving the schools on their own when creating or delivering local curriculum.

They have focused on different objectives to implement local curriculum and on specific fields of local wisdom, therefore narrowing down its scope dramatically. Their vision on what local wisdom is has therefore had a great impact on it. The analysis of the attitude of teachers regarding the local curriculum tells us a lot on what their vision is.

Interviewed schools, when implementing the local curriculum provision, focus mainly on vocational skills, such as the production of small handicrafts.

Further elaboration on that topic will be done in the following section. Most of them stated it was a waste of time at the expenses of core courses, especially because national tests, such as university entrance admission, do not include anything about local knowledge. They see the local curriculum as a hurdle towards higher education.

Most of pupils attend private courses after school Some of them are even taught in the evening by their regular teacher, but in exchange of tuition payment. If schools are to focus on community knowledge, how can students compete with the others during national tests? Local curriculum cannot be disconnected from the rationale of equity and of further education. They then have the opportunity to sell it.

The schools interviewed were situated in poor areas, and this aspect of the local curriculum eg. However, it emphasizes the idea that the local curriculum has mostly been dealt with in a vocational way. Why is it so? As teachers did not really know how to apply it, they focused on what they knew or what they thought local wisdom was.

To use local resources and match community needs, it appeared logical for them to focus on vocational skill development. Cultural dimensions of local wisdom have not been forgotten, but mainly focus on the school taking part in festivals, such as Songkran Festival. It is however striking to note that only in few cases was the importance of local language emphasized. This sounds paradoxical to us: How can local wisdom be strengthened while forgetting local languages?

This was the outcomes of the pressure of political groups who wanted to counterbalance the influence of globalization. First, people in the community have not sufficiently rallied the project and therefore the development and teaching of the local curriculum has been left solely in the hands of teachers. Moreover, local wisdom has been taken into account only partially, with an overwhelming emphasis on vocational aspects and little involvement from local communities. However, it has so far not been used in that way.

Whereas the local curriculum could have been used to improve education, it has not succeeded in it, apart from a few cases showcased in the media or by the administration. This is mainly due to a lack of a real and effective implementation plan: Launching programmes or projects are not the most awkward part of the public policy process, their implementation is The case of the local curriculum provision exemplifies this major weakness of public policies in Thailand that mainly focus on the decision and neglect the feasibility and sustainability of the programmes.

What is really encompassed and meant by it is not clear. Community can hence be understood as neighbourhood, surrounding area, local settings, or more strictly a village or an urban district. In the idea of localists regarding education, it deals with taking children instruction away from public, nation-led school. This can be understood as returning to traditional institutions, such as temple-run schools, or developing community schools as in the United States by empowering parents, school leaders and stakeholders of the surrounding area.

Chupradit The implementation of the local content provision in Thai basic education. Since and the Rajabhat Act, there have been known as Rajabhat Universities.

There are 6 RU in Bangkok and 34 in the provinces. As a consequence of their new rank, they have diversified their teaching curricula, and do not focus solely on the training of teachers. This latter activity is shared with Faculties of Education in older universities. Bangkok, Ministry of Education.

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Thailand has been successful in the growth in access to higher education across the country, but there are many specific requirements to improve the accountability of higher education system in the nation across many decades. It then describes an overall picture of developing and managing the quality assurance QA of Thai higher education. It also points to the details of criteria, processes, and systems which were adopted into the model of QA such as higher education standards, accreditation process of curriculum, Thailand Qualifications Framework, as well as provides the linkage between national education act, policy and standards, QA, feedback for continuous improvement as the key component of QA in the educational system. Finally, the paper presents the challenges and opportunities in the rapid change of the twenty-first century and globalisation as the main points and crucial factors requiring Thai HEIs to continue improving their quality effectively. Report bugs here.

Thailand has set a goal to produce graduates who have critical thinking and innovative skills that are useful for the industrial sector. The purpose was to apply a strategic management process as the framework of this study consisting of 1 situational analysis, 2 strategic formation, 3 strategic implementation, and 4 strategic control and feedback. This study proposes an innovation program consisting of 1 curriculum goals, 2 continuous teaching and learning, and 3 regular follow-ups and evaluation of innovative projects and their impacts on society. The purpose of this study then was to apply a strategic management process 3 as the framework for achieving the goal of creating innovative graduates, consisting of 1 situational analysis, 2 strategic formation, 3 strategic implementation, and 4 strategic control and feedback. However, there are still some problems that need to be urgently solved in the next phases.

Teacher’s Handbook

Staff Handbook. Moreover, it intends to continue its tradition of being the first complete e-learning international school in Thailand. With highly qualified and loving mentors, American Prep has positioned itself to deliver its American curriculum which has recognizably well-crafted content standards.

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This article contrasts policy intent and policy implementation in school autonomy and accountability.

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The purpose of this paper is to analyze critically the evolution of educational reform in Thailand. Three major phases are identified. The special focus of the paper is an assessment of the third reform which began with the passage of the Office of the National Education Commission ONEC The methodology for the study is mixed methods including document analysis, direct participant observation, and compilation of major statistical performance indicators from diverse sources. The success of the most recent reform has been clearly mixed. Major structural and legal changes have occurred but overall system performance remains disappointingly low, despite large Thai educational expenditures as a percent of national budget and the presence of much impressive educational leadership talent.

This article contrasts policy intent and policy implementation in school autonomy and accountability. The analysis uses a conceptual framework based on the interaction between school autonomy, student assessment, and accountability as elements of a closed system. The article analyzes the implementation of school autonomy and accountability policy, using data collected from schools in Thailand that participated in the PISA survey.

This chapter aims at investigating to what extent the local content provision has changed the Thai educational system and has contributed to the reinforcement of Thai identity and culture. The purpose of the research was to see and examine how the local curriculum has been developed so far. Through questionnaires submitted in schools, it was possible to present the actors involved in the creation and the implementation of the local curriculum, but also the content of the local curriculum and its perspectives.

Strategies for Creating Innovators in Thailand’s Higher Education

Education, Economy and Identity

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